[目的] 探究黄河流域河南段的生态状况，分析该区植被生长发育规律及其主控因素，为该区乃至整个黄河流域生态保护和恢复提供理论依据和技术支持。 [方法] 以黄河流域河南段为研究区，利用2001-2020年MODIS-NDVI影像，选取气象、地形、土地利用类型等因素，采用像元二分模型、一元线性回归方程和地理探测器等方法开展黄河流域河南段植被覆盖度变化及其驱动力的研究。 [结果] ①20 a间黄河流域河南段多年平均植被覆盖度由0.54增长到0.71，年增长率为0.85%，中等植被覆盖度(0.45＜FVC≤0.6)、中低植被覆盖度(0.3＜FVC≤0.45)、低植被覆盖度(0.1＜FVC≤0.3)、裸地(FVC≤0.1)向中高植被覆盖度(0.6＜FVC≤0.75)、高植被覆盖度(FVC≥0.75)转化，等级面积分别增加12.60%，75.49%； ②空间上，高、中高植被覆盖度区域主要集中在西部伏牛山、北部太行山山区和东部平原区，中等、中低、低植被覆盖度区域主要集中在中部洛阳至郑州段，裸地主要分布在水系和黄河两岸； ③20 a间研究区植被覆盖度改善面积远大于退化面积，极显著改善区域面积比例31.11%，主要分布在西部伏牛山和北部太行山山区；显著改善区域面积比例9.42%，主要分布在极显著改善区域周边；未发生明显变化区域比例52.35%；显著退化和极显著退化区域面积比例分别为3.01%和4.11%，主要分布在中部、东部平原的耕地和建筑物区； ④各因子对植被覆盖度的影响表现为：土地利用类型＞高程＞坡度＞降水量＞气温，土地利用类型与高程的交互协同作用对植被覆盖度空间格局分布的影响力达到0.52。 [结论] 2001-2020年研究区植被覆盖度呈现显著改善趋势，空间差异性明显，土地利用类型是影响植被覆盖度的主要影响因子。
[Objective] The ecological status of He’nan section of the Yellow River basin, the growth and development of vegetation in the area, and the main factors controlling vegetation coverage were determined in order to provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the ecological protection and restoration of the area and even the entire Yellow River basin. [Methods] We acquired MODIS-NDVI images for the Yellow River basin research area from 2001 to 2020 as well as meteorological, topographic, and land use type data. We used a pixel dichotomy model, univariate linear regression, and a geographic detector to determine changes in vegetation coverage and its driving forces in He’nan section of the Yellow River basin. [Results] ① Over the past 20 years, the annual average fractional vegetation coverage (FVC) in He’nan section of the Yellow River basin increased from 0.54 to 0.71, with an annual growth rate of 0.85%. Medium vegetation coverage (0.45＜FVC≤0.6), medium and low vegetation coverage (0.3＜FVC≤0.45), low vegetation coverage (0.1＜FVC≤0.3), bare land (FVC≤0.1) changed to medium and high vegetation coverage (0.6＜FVC≤0.75) and high vegetation coverage (FVC≥0.75), and the grade area increased by 12.60% and 75.49% respectively. ② Spatially, the areas with high and medium-high vegetation coverage were mainly concentrated in the Funiu Mountains in the west, the Taihang Mountains in the north, and the eastern plain. The areas with medium, medium-low, and low vegetation coverage were mainly concentrated in the central section from Luoyang to Zhengzhou City. The bare land was mainly located in the water system and both banks of the Yellow River. ③ Over the past 20 years, the area of increased vegetation coverage was much larger than the degraded area, and the area of extremely significant improvement accounted for 31.11%, which was mainly located in the Western Funiu Mountains and the Northern Taihang Mountains. The significantly improved areas accounted for 9.42% of the total area, and were mainly located around the extremely significant improved area. The area with no significant change accounted for 52.35% of the total area. The area of significantly degraded and extremely significantly degraded areas accounted for 3.01% and 4.11%, respectively, of the total area, and were mainly located in the cultivated land and built-up areas of the central and eastern plains. ④ The magnitude of the effects of various factors on vegetation coverage followed the order of land use type ＞ elevation ＞ slope ＞ precipitation ＞ temperature. The interaction and synergy of land use type and elevation had an impact on the spatial pattern distribution of vegetation coverage of 0.52. [Conclusion] Vegetation coverage in the study area significantly increased from 2001 to 2020, with obvious spatial differences. Land use type was the main factor affecting vegetation coverage.