[目的] 分析黄土高原生境质量的时空演变和影响因素，为黄土高原的生态治理和保障区域生态安全提供科学参考。 [方法] 运用InVEST模型评价了黄土高原生境质量，利用空间自相关分析法分析生境质量时空关联性，采用地理探测器分析了影响生境质量的驱动因子并进行单因子探测及交互探测。 [结果] ①2000-2020年，黄土高原20.5%的区域生境质量上升，7.18%的区域生境质量下降，区域生境质量呈稳定提升的趋势。 ②2000，2010和2020年黄土高原全局Moran’s I分别为0.714，0.706和0.694，生境质量在空间分布上呈现集聚现象并具有较高的空间正相关性，Moran’s I指数值降低说明空间集聚性小幅度下降，空间分布差异性渐趋均衡。 ③黄土高原生境质量因子影响程度大小顺序为：NDVI＞降水＞GDP＞坡度＞高程＞人口＞气温，研究期内各驱动因子对生境质量的决定力变化幅度不大且影响顺序未发生明显改变，说明各因子对生境质量的影响较稳定。 [结论] 应充分考虑黄土高原的实际情况，兼顾生态与经济两方面协同发展的目标，未来黄土高原可根据各生态区块的生境质量状况，制定更加具有针对性的管理措施，增强生态系统服务功能，并以其为基础寻求新型经济增长模式。
[Objective] The temporal and spatial evolution and influencing factors of habitat quality in the Loess Plateau were determined in order to provide a scientific reference for ecological management and regional ecological security in the Loess Plateau. [Methods] The InVEST model was used to evaluate habitat quality in the Loess Plateau. The spatio-temporal correlation of habitat quality was analyzed by spatial autocorrelation analysis. The driving factors affecting habitat quality were analyzed by geographical detector, and single factor detection and interactive detection were carried out. [Results] ① From 2000 to 2020, habitat quality for 20.5% of the Loess Plateau increased, 7.18% of the region exhibited decreased habitat quality, and the regional habitat quality showed a steady upward trend. ② The global Moran’s I values for the Loess Plateau in 2000, 2010, and 2020 were 0.714, 0.706, and 0.694, respectively. The spatial distribution of habitat quality showed agglomeration and had a high positive spatial correlation. The agglomeration decreased slightly, and the differences in spatial distribution became more balanced. ③ The influence degree of the habitat quality factors of the Loess Plateau followed the order of NDVI＞precipitation＞slope＞GDP＞population＞elevation＞air temperature. During the study period, the determinative force of each driving factor on habitat quality did not change much, and the order of influence did not change significantly, indicating that each factor has a stable effect on habitat quality. [Conclusion] The actual situation of the Loess Plateau should be fully considered, and the goal of coordinated development of ecology and economy should be taken into account. In the future, more targeted management measures for the Loess Plateau should be formulated in accordance with the habitat quality of each ecological block to enhance the ecosystem service function, and a new economic growth model based on habitat quality should be constructed.