[目的] 探究京郊土地利用方式改变后土壤含盐量、盐分分布及碱化特征，为该区及类似地区土壤盐渍化改良利用和果树经济效益的提升提供科学依据。 [方法] 以北京市通州区原农田调整为果园(梨、樱桃、葡萄、苹果、桃)土壤为研究对象，测定土壤0-20 cm和20-40 cm深处全盐量、主要离子组成、pH值、电导率、碱化度等指标，利用描述性统计、相关性分析方法进行数据分析。 [结果] ①研究区土壤阳离子以Na+为主，阴离子以HCO-3为主，全盐含量0.83~5.39 g/kg，pH值 7.45~8.23，碱化度1.52%~12.77%，电导率0.1~2.37 mS/cm。 ②水平方向主要为中等强度变异，垂直方向无显著差异。 ③全盐量与电导率呈极显著的线性正相关关系(R2=0.864)。 [结论] 北京市通州区果园土壤盐分离子呈表聚积累，总体呈碱性，应及时采取相应措施提升土壤肥力，形成生态良性循环。
[Objective] The soil salt content, salt distribution and alkalization characteristics after the change of land use patterns in Beijing suburbs were studied in order to provide scientific basis for the improvement and utilization of soil salinization and the improvement of economic benefits of fruit trees in this area and similar areas. [Methods] The study areas were located at Tongzhou District, Beijing City, where the soil type has shifted from farmland to orchards (pear, cherry, grape, apple, peach). The salinity distribution and salinization characteristics (including total salinity, main ion composition, pH value, electrical conductivity, and alkalinity degree) for two soil depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) were measured. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. [Results] ① The soil cations in the study area were dominated by Na+, and the anions were dominated by HCO-3. The total soil salt content, pH value, alkalinity, and electrical conductivity ranges were 0.83-5.39 g/kg, 7.45-8.23, 1.52%-12.77%, and 0.1-2.37 mS/cm, respectively. ② Variation in the horizontal direction was mainly of moderate intensity, while there was no significant variation in the vertical direction. ③ The total salt content and electrical conductivity exhibited a significant positive linear correlation, and the relationship was expressed as linear function (R2=0.864). [Conclusion] Soil salt ions in the orchards of Tongzhou District, Beijing City showed surface accumulation and were generally alkaline. Corresponding measures should be taken in time to improve soil fertility and form a virtuous ecological cycle.