[目的] 研究鼠丘土壤风蚀特征，揭示黄河源鼠害退化区鼠丘土壤风蚀机理，为进一步科学评判高寒草地鼠害退化区土壤流失特征提供科学依据。 [方法] 以黄河源区广泛分布的高原鼠兔和高原鼢鼠2类鼠丘为研究对象，并依据鼠丘土壤质地特征将其划分为草甸土鼠丘、沙化土鼠丘以及含砾石土鼠丘3类，在3～15 m/s风速范围内采用小型原位风蚀试验装置在9组风速试验(梯度为1.5 m/s)下探究鼠丘土壤风蚀量随风速变化的关系。 [结果] ①当风速超过9 m/s时，沙化土鼠丘土壤风蚀量的风蚀量最大，含砾石土鼠丘土壤风蚀量最小，且沙化土鼠丘土壤风蚀量与风速大小间呈幂函数的正相关，草甸土和含砾石土鼠丘土壤风蚀量与风速间呈指数函数的正相关，砾石对土壤风蚀的抑制作用明显。 ②高原鼠兔鼠丘土壤风蚀量大于高原鼢鼠鼠丘，且鼠丘土壤风蚀率随着风速的增加幅度较大，同等风速下鼠丘土壤风蚀率随风蚀时间的增加呈现先快后慢的趋势。 ③通过对流失的鼠丘土壤颗粒粒径分析，沙化土鼠丘土壤风蚀颗粒以砂粒为主，草甸土和含砾石土鼠丘土壤颗粒均以粉粒为主，流失颗粒组成与鼠丘土壤质地条件有关。 [结论] 黄河源鼠害退化区鼠丘土壤风蚀量随风速大小的变化关系与土壤质地条件、啮齿动物活动习性及其对土壤团聚体的破坏和土壤重组特征有关。
[Objective] The mechanism of wind erosion of soil in rodent mounds in a degraded area of the source area of the Yellow River were determined by studying the characteristics of soil particle loss in order to provide significant guidance for further scientific evaluation of soil loss characteristics in a degraded alpine grassland area. [Methods] We studied rodent mounds that are widely distributed in the source area of the Yellow River which were creased by two rodent species, namely Ochotona curzoniae and Eospalax baileyi. According to soil texture characteristics, the rodent mounds were divided into three types: meadow, sand, and gravel-bearing. A small in-situ wind erosion test device was used to investigate the relationship between wind erosion and wind speed in the wind speed range of 3~15 m/s under nine wind speed tests with an interval of 1.5 m/s. [Results] ① When wind speed was greater than 9 m/s, the wind erosion amount of the Ochotona curzoniae mounds was the largest, and the wind erosion amount of the Eospalax baileyi mounds was the smallest. A power function relationship was found between wind erosion amount of the Ochotona curzoniae mounds and wind speed. There was a positive correlation between the amount of wind erosion and wind speed in meadow soil and gravel-containing soil. Gravel had a significant inhibitory effect on soil wind erosion. ② The wind erosion of soil in Ochotona curzoniae mounds was greater than in Eospalax baileyi mounds, and the wind erosion rate of soil in rodent mounds increased greatly with increasing wind speed. The wind erosion rate of soil in rodent mounds showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with increasing wind erosion time. ③ According to an analysis of soil particle size, the wind erosion particles of sand-dune soil were dominated by sand, while meadow soil and gravel-bearing soil were dominated by silt. The composition of erosion particles was related to the soil texture of rodent mounds. [Conclusion] The relationship between soil loss and wind speed was related to soil texture, rodent activity, soil aggregate damage, and soil reorganization in a degraded area of source area of the Yellow River.