[目的] 探究小流域暴雨后生产道路侵蚀强度状况及侵蚀形成原因，为今后改善水土流失状况，完善水土保持工程建设及维护提供理论基础。[方法] 水利部水土保持监测中心于2022年7月25-29日组织开展了宁夏西吉县“7·13”暴雨水土保持综合调查。采用“断面法”对五十岔小流域生产道路进行环境及侵蚀状况调查并计算侵蚀强度，分析生产道路侵蚀强度状况及侵蚀形成原因。[结果] ①五十岔小流域内生产道路受到降雨、道路自身特性和人类活动影响，各条道路呈现不同的侵蚀状况，小流域下游、顺径流方向且植被盖度较低的道路易受严重侵蚀。②对小流域的道路侵蚀模数进行了分析计算，“断面法”计算值为1 054.49 t/km2，三维影像测量值为1 277.91 t/km2，调查断面损毁率为53.39%。 [结论] 实施水土保持措施是必要且有效的，良好的水土保持措施和较高的植被覆盖率能够有效防止生产道路水土流失现象的发生。
[Objective] The erosion intensity and the causes of erosion of the production roads after rainstorm in the small watershed at Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region were explored in order to provide a theoretical basis for improving the situation of soil erosion and improving the construction and maintenance of water and soil conservation projects in the future. [Methods] From July 25 to 29, 2022, Soil and Water Conservation Monitoring Center of the Ministry of Water Resources organized a comprehensive survey on soil and water conservation of the “7·13” rainstorm at Xiji Conuty, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The environment and erosion status of the production road in the small watershed of the Wushicha small watershed were investigated and the erosion intensity was calculated by using the “section method”. The erosion intensity status and the causes of erosion were analyzed. [Results] ① The rainfall, the characteristics of road and the human activities are the main influencing factors of the production roads erosion in the Wushicha small watershed. Each road shows different erosion patterns, among which the lower reaches of the small watershed, along the runoff direction and with low vegetation coverage are seriously eroded. ② The road erosion modulus of small watershed is analyzed and calculated. The calculated value of “section method” is 1 054.49 t/km2, and the measured value of 3D image is 1 277.91 t/km2. The damage rate of the survey section is 53.39%. [Conclusion] It is necessary and effective to implement soil and water conservation measures. Good soil and water conservation measures and high vegetation coverage rate can effectively prevent the occurrence of soil and water loss on production roads.