[目的] 开展黄土高原不同地区典型暴雨事件土壤侵蚀现状调查，分析暴雨条件下流域土壤侵蚀特点及下游洪水淹没灾害程度，以期为该区暴雨侵蚀灾害的预防和治理提供参考。 [方法] 以2022年7月到9月黄土高原不同地区发生的4场典型大暴雨为背景，通过野外实地调查，并基于无人机航摄获取暴雨过后小流域的高清影像，对不同地区暴雨条件下小流域内不同土地利用类型的侵蚀特征和洪水淹没灾害进行了分析。 [结果] 在大暴雨情况下，坡耕地易发生侵蚀，且主要以细沟侵蚀为主，侵蚀模数为22 588～46 244 t/(km2·a)；草地无明显沟蚀现象。重力侵蚀在流域中所占比例较大，易发生在道路和沟道两侧。生产道路增大了流域水文连通性，导致道路侵蚀和损毁严重。有排水设施的道路侵蚀明显小于未设置排水设施的道路。梯田田坎易发生崩塌损毁，损毁长、宽、深分别为10～30 m，0.35～2.3 m和0.1～1.9 m，新修梯田侵蚀损毁显著大于老梯田，当年雨季前修的梯田侵蚀损毁也显著大于上年雨季后修的梯田。流域内各淤地坝拦沙作用明显，但在暴雨情况下仍存在较多的损毁和漫坝现象，且大部分淤地坝淤积已达到库容上限。不合理的占用河道、工程建设、小流域蓄排措施缺乏，部分水保设施管护不到位均会加剧流域侵蚀及洪水灾害。 [结论] 在一般暴雨条件下，小流域内现有的水保措施能较好地抵御暴雨侵蚀，但在大暴雨乃至特大暴雨条件下，流域内侵蚀灾害依然严重，且容易对下游造成严重的淤积和洪涝灾害，优化设计并布局流域内整体的“蓄排协调”设施是当前黄土高原地区水土保持工作高质量发展亟需解决的问题。
[Objective] The current situation of soil erosion during typical rainstorm events in different regions of the Loess Plateau was investigated, and the characteristics of soil erosion in the catchment and the flood inundation disaster in the downstream were analyzed in order to provide reference for the prevention and control of rainstorm erosion disaster in the region. [Methods] Taking the four typical heavy rainstorms that occurred in different areas of the Loess Plateau from July to September 2022 as the background, through field investigations, and based on drone aerial photography to obtain high-definition images of small catchments after the rainstorm, the erosion characteristics and flooding disaster of different land use types in small catchment under heavy rainfall conditions in different regions were analyzed. [Results] Under the condition of heavy rain, gully erosion is easy to occur in sloping farmland, and mainly rill erosion, with the erosion modulus ranging from 22 588～46 244 t/km2; There is no obvious gully erosion in the grassland. Gravity erosion dominates the catchment and is prone to occur on both sides of roads and channels. The production roads increase the hydrological connectivity of the catchment, resulting in serious road erosion and damage. The erosion of roads with drainage facilities is significantly smaller than that of roads without drainage facilities. The destruction of terraced fields sill is prone to collapse, the length, width and depth of the damage are 10～30 m, 0.35～2.3 m and 0.1～1.9 m respectively. The erosion and damage of newly built terraces are significantly greater than those of old terraces, and the erosion and damage of terraces built before the rainy season of that year are also significantly greater than those built after the rainy season of the previous year. The check dams in the catchment have obvious effects on sediment retention, but there are still many damage and flooding overtopping dam phenomena in the case of heavy rain, and the siltation of most of the check dams has reached the upper limit of the storage capacity. Unreasonable occupancy of river channels, engineering construction, lack of storage and drainage measures in small watersheds, and inadequate management and protection of some soil and water conservation facilities will aggravate watershed erosion and flood disasters. [Conclusion] Under the general rainstorm conditions, the current soil and water conservation measures in the small catchment can better resist the rainstorm erosion. The erosion disasters in the catchment are still serious under the heavy rainstorm, and it is easy to cause serious siltation and flood disasters in the downstream. Optimizing the design and layout of the overall “storage and drainage coordination” facilities in the watersheds is an urgent problem that needs to be solved for the high-quality development of soil and water conservation work in the Loess Plateau.