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长山沟露天矿集中区土地利用时空变化的遥感监测与分析
刘硕1,2, 李小光3,4, 宋建伟1,2, 单强1,2, 鲁明星5,4
1.河北省地质环境监测院, 河北 石家庄 050000;2.河北省地质资源环境监测与保护重点实验室, 河北 石家庄 050000;3.华北理工大学 矿业工程学院, 河北 唐山 063210;4.河北省矿区生态修复产业技术研究院, 河北 唐山 063210;5.防灾科技学院 应急管理学院, 河北 廊坊 065201
摘要:
[目的] 分析露天矿集中区土地利用时空变化特征,为开展露天矿区生态环境监测提供科学参考。[方法] 以河北省唐山市长山沟露天矿集中区为研究对象,基于2003,2010,2015和2019年4期Google Earth影像,进行土地利用遥感分类,使用ArcGIS软件计算土地利用转移矩阵,分析露天矿集中区土地利用时空变化特征及原因。[结果] ①2003—2015年,研究区内绿地面积减少了169.61 hm2,占总面积的6.30%,裸地和工业场地面积分别增加了184.73和60.46 hm2,占总面积的6.86%和2.25%;部分耕地被占用;在空间上以绿地转为裸地和工业场地为主。②2015—2019年,研究区内绿地面积减少了61.05 hm2,占总面积的2.27%,工业场地面积增加了43.90 hm2,占总面积的1.63%,其他地类面积变化不大;空间上绿地与裸地和工业场地相互转化,总面积变化不大。[结论] 露天矿集中区开采前期大量绿地被占用,植被破坏与土地资源占用现象较为严重,生态环境受到了严重的影响。开采后期由于加强了矿山生态修复治理,“边开采,边治理”模式的治理效果已初步体现。
关键词:  露天矿开采  生态环境  遥感  动态监测
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.04.017
分类号:TD167;P237
基金项目:唐山市科技创新团队培养计划项目“唐山市矿区生态修复研究基础创新团队”(19130206C);唐山市科学技术研究与发展计划重点项目(19150247E);中央高校基本科研业务费专项(ZY20210219)
Remote Sensing Monitoring and Analysis of Spatiotemporal Changes in Changshangou Open Pit Mine Concentration Area
Liu Shuo1,2, Li Xiaoguang3,4, Song Jianwei1,2, Shan Qiang1,2, Lu Mingxing5,4
1.The Institute of Geo-environment Monitoring of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, China;2.Hebei Key Laboratory Geological Resources Environment Monitoring and Protection, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, China;3.College of Mining Engineering, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei 063210, China;4.Hebei Industrial Technology Institute of Mine Ecological Remediation, Tangshan, Hebei 063210, China;5.School of Emergency Management, Institute of Disaster Prevention, Langfang, Hebei 065201, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The spatiotemporal characteristics of land use changes were studied to provide scientific reference for carrying out ecological and environmental monitoring in concentration area of open pit mine. [Methods] Based on Google Earth images in 2003, 2010, 2015 and 2019, the land use remote sensing classification was carried out in Changshangou open-pin mine concentration area in Tangshan City, Hebei Province. The land use transfer matrix was calculated by using ArcGIS software, and the spatio-temporal characteristics and causes of land use change in the open-pin mine concentration area were analyzed. [Results] ① From 2003 to 2015, the area of greenland in the study area decreased by 169.61 hm2, accounting for 6.30% of the total area, and the area of bare land and industrial sites increased by 184.73 hm2 and 60.46 hm2, accounting for 6.86% and 2.25% of the total area, respectively; some arable land was occupied; spatially, greenland was mainly converted to bare land and industrial sites. ② From 2015 to 2019, the area of greenland in the study area decreased by 61.05 hm2, accounting for 2.27% of the total area, and the area of industrial sites increased by 43.90 hm2, accounting for 1.63% of the total area, with little changes in the area of other land use types; spatially greenland was transformed into bare land and industrial sites, with little change of the total area. [Conclusion] In the early stage of mining, a large amount of green land was occupied in the open pit mine, the vegetation destruction and land resource occupation was serious, and the ecological environment was seriously affected. At the late stage of mining, the ecological restoration and treatment of the mine were strengthened, and the effect of “management while mining” mode was initially achieved.
Key words:  open-pit mining  ecological environment  remote sensing  dynamic monitoring