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甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区沼泽湿地的土壤特性
刘晓娟1, 张玉斌2, 王煜明2, 董万涛2, 杨巨才2, 达布希力特2, 乌力吉2, 孙学刚1
1.甘肃农业大学 林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070;2.甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区管理局, 甘肃 肃北 736300
摘要:
[目的] 对甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区内沼泽湿地土壤的理化性质进行了研究,以期揭示保护区内沼泽湿地土壤特性以及湿地土壤在湿地中的作用,为保护区的湿地保护提供参考。[方法] 在保护区内选择6处典型的沼泽湿地,采用随机法对土壤进行分层取样。根据国家标准对各沼泽湿地土壤的孔性特征、水分特征和养分特征进行了测定。[结果] ①随着土层深度的增加,各沼泽湿地土壤容重逐渐增大,土壤孔隙逐渐减小,土壤通气度逐渐减小。榆林河水脑和大德尔吉湿地土壤的各项孔性指标的测定结果均优于其他各沼泽湿地。②随着土层深度的增加,各沼泽湿地土壤水分特征指标均逐渐下降。榆林河水脑和大德尔吉湿地土壤的各项水分特征指标的测定结果均优于其他各沼泽湿地。③随着土层深度的增加,各沼泽湿地土壤养分含量均呈现下降趋势。榆林河水脑沼泽湿地土壤养分含量较高,野马大泉沼泽湿地土壤养分含量最低,其余4处沼泽湿地土壤养分条件相差不大。[结论] 随着土层深度的增加,保护区内各沼泽湿地土壤逐渐变得紧实,土壤孔隙逐渐减小,水分条件逐渐下降,土壤养分含量逐渐降低。其中,榆林河水脑和大德尔吉湿地土壤的土质疏松,通气性较好,并且有着较为优越的水分条件,具有较强的贮蓄水分和涵养水源的能力。而野马大泉湿地能够快速容纳降水并及时下渗,可有效调节径流。榆林河水脑沼泽湿地土壤养分条件最好,而野马大泉沼泽湿地土壤养分条件最差。保护区沼泽湿地土壤环境整体呈碱性。
关键词:  沼泽湿地  土壤特性  孔性特征  水分特征  养分特征
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.04.015
分类号:S152;X144
基金项目:甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区昆虫资源和湿地生态环境本底调查研究
Soil Characteristics of Swamp Wetland in Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve of Gansu Province
Liu Xiaojuan1, Zhang Yubin2, Wang Yuming2, Dong Wantao2, Yang Jucai2, Dabu Xilite2, Wuliji2, Sun Xuegang1
1.College of Forestry, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China;2.Gansu Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve Bureau, Subei, Gansu 736300, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The physical and chemical properties of swamp wetland in Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve of Gansu Province were evaluated to reveal the characteristics of wetland soil and the role of wetland soil in the wetland, in order to provide reference for wetland protection in the reserve. [Methods] Six typical marshes were selected in the reserve, and stratified soil samplings were collected by random method. According to the national standard, the soil porosity, soil moisture properties and soil nutrient characteristics of each marsh were measured. [Results] ① With the increase of soil depth, soil bulk density increased gradually, while soil porosity and soil aeration decreased gradually. The results of soil pore indexes in Yulin River Source Wetland and Daderji Wetland were better than those in other marshes. ② With the increase of soil depth, soil moisture properties decreased gradually. Soil moisture properties in Yulin River Source Wetland and Daderji Wetland were better than those in other marshes. ③ With the increase of soil depth, the soil nutrient contents of all marshes showed a decreasing trend. The soil nutrient contents of Yulin River Source Wetland were higher, the soil nutrient contents of Yema Daquan Wetland were the lowest, and there was no significant difference in the soil nutrient conditions of the other four marshes. [Conclusion] With the increase of soil depth, the soil of the marshes in the reserve gradually becomes compacted, the soil porosity, the water condition and the soil nutrient content decreases. The soil in Yulin River Source Wetland and Daderji Wetland are loose in quality, good in aeration, and have superior water conditions with strong ability of water storage and water conservation, while the Yema Daquan Wetland can quickly accommodate precipitation and infiltrate in time, which can effectively regulate runoff. The soil nutrient condition of Yulin River Source Wetland was the best, while that of Yema Daquan Wetland was the worst. The soil environment of the reserve marsh wetland is alkaline.
Key words:  swamp wetland  soil characteristics  soil porosity  soil moisture properties  soil nutrient characteristics