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藻菌混合结皮对土壤水肥保持及玉米幼苗生长的影响
陆贺港, 任梦楠, 黄海东
天津农学院 农学与资源环境学院, 天津 300392
摘要:
[目的] 研究藻菌混合结皮对土壤水肥保持及玉米幼苗生长的影响,为土壤治理与改良策略提供理论依据。[方法] 使用来自内蒙古翁牛特沙漠的2种产胞外多糖的细菌(Sphingomonas sp.D3-1和Massilia armeniaca sp.ZMN-3)和2种藻类(Cladophora aegagrophila D3-a和Nostoc sphaeroides0 D3-25)制备成藻菌混合剂后,喷洒至土壤表面,形成土壤结皮。研究藻菌混合结皮与土壤水肥保持、微生物数量及酶活性的关系,及其对玉米幼苗的影响。[结果] 与对照相比,藻菌混合结皮明显延缓了土壤水分的流失速度,并使氮、磷和钾的平均淋失效率分别减少了76.9%,64.4%和47.8%,土壤中的细菌、真菌和放线菌数量分别增加了8.3,1.8和3.1倍,芽孢杆菌的数量下降了12.4%。另外,在玉米盆栽中,藻菌混合结皮使玉米幼苗的地上部鲜/干重、根部鲜/干重和地上/下部长度分别提升30.0%/55.6%,55.4%/38.5%和16.5%/18.0%,叶绿素含量增加15.0%。[结论] 藻类与产胞外多糖的细菌共同形成的藻菌混合结皮,明显改善了土壤的水肥保持效果,可作为治理土壤的新途径加以推广。
关键词:  藻菌混合结皮  水肥保持  土壤微生物  土壤酶  玉米幼苗
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.04.011
分类号:S157.2;S513
基金项目:天津农学院研究生培养质量提升项目“藻菌生物结皮对土壤水肥保持及作物生长的影响”(2017YPY017);国家自然科学基金项目(31571790)
Effects of Cyanobacteria-bacteria Biological Crusts on Soil Moisture and Nutrient Conservation and Maize Seedling Growth
Lu Hegang, Ren Mengnan, Huang Haidong
College of Agronomy and Resource Environment, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300392, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of cyanobacteria-bacteria biological crusts on moisture and nutrient conservation and maize seedling growth were studied to provide a theoretical basis for soil treatment and improvement strategies. [Methods] Two species of bacteria (Sphingomonas sp. D3-1 and Massilia armeniaca sp. ZMN-3) and two species of cyanobacteria (Cladophora aegagrophila D3-a and Nostoc sphaeroides D3-25) isolated from the Wengniute Desert of Inner Mongolia Region, were used to prepare biological crusts. The relationships between the cyanobacteria-bacteria biological crusts and soil moisture and nutrient conservation, soil microbial quantity and soil enzyme activity were explored, and the effect of biological crusts on maize seedling growth was studied. [Results] Compared with the control, the soil surface cyanobacteria-bacteria crust significantly declined the rate of soil moisture loss, and reduced the average leaching efficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by 76.9%, 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively, while increased the number of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in soil by 8.3 times, 1.8 times and 3.1 times, respectively, and decreased the number of bacillus by 12.4%. Besides, in the corn plants, the cyanobacteria-bacteria crust increased the aboveground fresh/dry weight, root fresh/dry weight, and above/lower length of corn seedlings by 45%/57.8%, 54.6%/32.8% and 19.7%/14.5%, respectively, and the chlorophyll content increased by 5.7%. [Conclusion] The mixed soil biological crust formed by cyanobacteria and extracellular polysaccharide producing bacteria significantly improved the soil microbial and fertilizer conservation effect, which could provide a reference for developing a new way of soil management.
Key words:  cyanobacteria-bacteria crusts  moisture and nutrient conservation  soil microbial  soil enzyme  maize seedling