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黔中喀斯特山地黄壤区降雨侵蚀力R值的分布特征
李亦秋1,2, 邓欧1,2, 杨广斌1,2, 方启彬3
1.贵州师范大学 地理与环境科学学院, 贵州 贵阳 550025;2.贵州山地资源与环境遥感重点实验室, 贵州 贵阳 550025;3.贵州省水土保持监测站, 贵州 贵阳 550002
摘要:
[目的] 研究黔中喀斯特山地黄壤区降雨侵蚀力R值的分布特征,为进行区域土壤侵蚀定量预报、土壤保持规划和水土流失防治提供科学参考。[方法] 以黔中喀斯特黄壤分布区10个水土保持监测站点2013—2019年的日降雨量记录表和5 min间隔降雨过程摘录数据为主要数据来源,分析次R值分布特征、R值的月分布特征、年际变化特征和R值的雨量雨强分布特征。[结果] ①研究区系列最大次R值在次平均R值的几倍至十几倍之间,最大次R值占对应年份的年R值的比例最少都达22.28%以上。一年中几次比较大的暴雨对土壤侵蚀的贡献率大。②降雨侵蚀力R值主要分布在4—9月,又重点集中于6—8月;4—9月R值占年R值的90.00%左右,甚至达到95.00%以上;而6—8月所占比例最低(都为55.98%),最高达到85.25%。③年均R值由东南向西北呈明显的减小趋势;R值年际变差系数与之呈相反趋势,表明降雨侵蚀力由东南向西北稳定性逐渐降低;R值年际变差系数变化范围在0.20~0.44之间,年际变化较大。④中雨、大雨、暴雨和大暴雨是产生R值的主要雨量等级,大多数站点主要雨量等级所占比例均在60.00%以上。大雨因出现频率相对较高,历时较长,对总R值的贡献最大。大暴雨总体上出现的频率不高,但单次大暴雨的降雨侵蚀力的R值却可以很大,一次大暴雨就可能改变R的整体分布。雨强15~30 mm/h是R值分布的高峰区,其平均比例为31.97%;大于60 mm/h雨强的降雨发生的随机性更大,所产生的R值比例的空间分布差异也大。[结论] 黔中喀斯特山地黄壤区降雨侵蚀力R值时空分异明显,需因地制宜实施水土流失防治。
关键词:  喀斯特山地  黄壤  降雨侵蚀力R  分布特征  黔中地区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.04.006
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:黔科合基础项目“黔中喀斯特山地黄壤对降雨的侵蚀响应过程与机制”[2020]1Z031;黔科合基础项目([2019]1222;[2019]1218);贵州师范大学博士科研项目(GZNUD[2017]8;GZNUD[2017]9)
Distribution Characteristics of Rainfall Erosivity R Value in Yellow Soil Area of Karst Mountainous Region in Central Guizhou Province
Li Yiqiu1,2, Deng Ou1,2, Yang Guangbin1,2, Fang Qibin3
1.School of Geographic and Environments Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, China;2.Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Mountain Resources and Environment Remote Sensing Application, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China;3.Guizhou Monitoring Station of Soil and Water Conservation, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The distribution characteristics of rainfall erosivity R value in the yellow soil area of karst mountainous region in Central Guizhou Province were studied, in order to provide scientific references for regional soil erosion quantitative prediction, soil conservation planning and soil and water loss control. [Methods] Based on the data source of the daily rainfall record from 2013 to 2019, and the extracted data of rainfall process at 5 min intervals from 10 soil and water conservation monitoring stations in the karst yellow soil distribution area of Guizhou Province, the individual distribution characteristics, monthly distribution characteristics, inter-annual variation characteristics of R value, rainfall and rainfall intensity distribution characteristics were analyzed. [Results] ① The maximum R values was several times to a dozen times of the average R value of each monitoring stations. The percentage of the maximum R values in the corresponding year was also significantly different, and at least accounted for about 22.28% of the annual value. The contribution rate of several heavy rainstorms in a year was very high. ② The R value of rainfall erosivity was mainly distributed from April to September, and particularly concentrated from June to August. The R value from April to September accounted for about 90.00% of the annual R value in the monitoring stations, among which some stations were more than 95.00%. From June to August, the lowest R value accounted for 55.98% of the annual value, and the highest was 85.25%. ③ The average annual R value decreased significantly from southeast to southwest. The inter-annual variation coefficient (Cv) of R values showed an opposite trend, and increased significantly from southeast to northwest. The variation range of the inter-annual variation coefficient (Cv) of R values was 0.20~0.44, with a large interannual variation. ④ Moderate rain, heavy rain, rainstorm, and heavy rainstorm were the main rainfall erosivity levels, with which most stations accounting for more than 60.00%. Heavy rain, due to its relatively high frequency and long duration, contributed the most to the total R value. Overall, the frequency of heavy rainstorm was not high, but the value of rainfall erosivity R value of a single heavy rainstorm could be very large, which could change the R value distribution by a single heavy rainstorm. The peak area of R value distribution was 15—30 mm/h, and the average proportion is 31.97%. The occurrence of high rainfall intensity was more random, and the spatial distribution difference of the R value proportion generated by rainfall intensity greater than 60 mm/h was also large. [Conclusion] The spatial and temporal variation of rainfall erosivity R value is obvious in the yellow soil area of karst mountainous region in Central Guizhou Province, so it is necessary to take measures to prevent and control soil erosion according to local conditions.
Key words:  karst mountainous region  yellow soil  rainfall erosivity R value  distribution characteristics  Central Guizhou Province