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1990-2017年哈尔滨市城乡生态耦合及其安全格局构建
谢婧, 李文
东北林业大学 园林学院, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150040
摘要:
[目的] 探究哈尔滨市中观尺度上城乡空间各类生态要素的衔接模式与生态廊道布局的细节优化措施,旨在实现城市内部与乡村的生态系统联动,提升区域生态效益,为相关生态规划部门提供决策参考。[方法] 基于景观生态学原理及GIS技术,以生态阻力值较大的重要河流廊道为边界,根据城市发展动向,裁切出哈尔滨市城乡空间在中观尺度上的研究范围。通过分析哈尔滨市1990-2017年土地利用变化,得出各类生态要素在时空尺度上的耦合模式演变,为生态安全格局构建及优化提供方向。运用形态学空间格局分析法(MSPA)对研究区域生态要素的核心区、桥接区及岛状斑块等进行识别与评价,根据dPC指数提取出重要生态源地,基于最小累积阻力模型(MCR)得出潜在生态廊道,通过科学计算对连通性较弱的区域进行规划补充,归纳廊道缓冲区宽度、核密度及生态断裂点,并结合生态耦合机制的时空变化对生态安全格局进行细节优化。[结果] 通过各类生态要素在中观尺度上的耦合模式变化,确定了哈尔滨市城乡生态源地及廊道细节优化策略,形成稳定可持续的生态安全格局,归纳总结了因地制宜的优化建设措施。[结论] 哈尔滨市共计15处核心区为原生态源地,重要生态廊道为42条,一般生态廊道为63条,主要分布于研究区域北部。优化后的生态安全格局补充了11处生态源地和220条潜在规划生态廊道,廊道适宜建设宽度为60 m。
关键词:  生态耦合  生态安全格局  形态学空间格局分析(MSPA)  最小累积阻力模型(MCR)  哈尔滨市
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.01.043
分类号:X37
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费专项,科技平台持续发展专项“城市化背景下资源型城市生态格局构建:以大庆市为例”(2572018CP06)
Ecological Coupling Model and Construction of Ecological Security Patterns in Urban and Rural Space of Harbin City During 1990-2017
Xie Jing, Li Wen
College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150040, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The connection of various ecological elements in urban and rural spaces on a mesoscale and the detailed optimization measures of the layout of ecological corridors of Harbin City was explored to realize the linkage between the urban and rural ecosystems, improve regional ecological benefits, and provide a reference for making decisions in relevant ecological planning departments.[Methods] Based on the principles of landscape ecology and GIS technology, important river corridors with large ecological resistance values were used as boundaries. According to the development trend of the city, the research scope of urban and rural spaces on a mesoscale was determined. Through an analysis of the land use changes of Harbin City during 1990-2017, the evolution of coupling modes of various ecological elements on the temporal and spatial scales was obtained, providing directions for the construction and optimization of ecological security patterns. The morphological spatial pattern analysis method was used to identify and evaluate the core area, bridge area, and island patches of the ecological elements of the study area, and important ecological sources were extracted based on the dPC index. Based on the minimum cumulative resistance model, potential ecological corridors were obtained and areas with weak connectivity were planned and supplemented through calculations. The width of the buffer zones of corridors, nuclear density, and ecological break point were obtained and the ecological security pattern was optimized in detail based on the temporal and spatial changes in the ecological coupling mechanism.[Results] Through the change in the coupling mode of various ecological elements on a mesoscale, ecological sources and the detailed optimization measures for the corridors in the urban and rural spaces of Harbin City were determined, and a stable and sustainable ecological security pattern was formed. In this research, the optimized construction measures were summarized according to local conditions.[Conclusion] Fifteen core areas in Harbin City are the original ecological sources, and there are 42 important ecological corridors and 63 general ecological corridors. The corridors are mainly distributed in the northern part of the study area. The optimized ecological security pattern complements 11 ecological sources and 220 potential planned ecological corridors, and the suitable construction width of a corridor is 60 m.
Key words:  ecological coupling  ecological security pattern  morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA)  minimum cumulative resistance model (MCR)  Harbin City