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乌海矿区矸石山边坡植被重建初期物种多样性及群落稳定性
刘莹1,2, 许丽1,2, 丰菲1,2, 杨宇平1,2, 张丽娜1,2
1.内蒙古农业大学 沙漠治理学院, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010018;2.荒漠生态系统保护与修复国家林业局重点实验室, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010018
摘要:
[目的] 针对西北干旱区煤矸石山边坡植被重建初期,探究不同建植年限群落特征的变化规律,为乌海市矿区生态重建的中、后期工作提供依据。[方法] 以乌海市矿区美方煤矸石山为研究对象,采用野外样方调查取样的方法,对比分析了矸石山植被重建初期的植物生长状况与群落稳定性。[结果] ①研究区植被重建过程中,物种数量明显增加。自然侵入植物种在重建2 a时仅有4种,建植3 a增加至6种,建植4 a已增加至7种。不同植被重建年限群落中白茎盐生草(Halogeton arachnoideus)均处于优势地位,表明群落正在进行正向演替过程。②随重建年限从2 a增加至4 a,植被平均盖度、地上生物量、群落丰富度指数均增加了1.5倍左右,表明群落结构逐步稳定。③煤矸石山,在植被重建2~4 a时,群落正处于演替初期,群落相似性系数逐年降低,群落结构趋于复杂化,但仍处于不稳定状态。[结论] 在矸石山后续的恢复中,在种植矿区典型复垦植物种,例如豆科、禾本科、菊科等植物时,应适当促进适应当地条件的本地物种自然定植,并且通过种植演替后期的本土植物种类在煤矸石山保留当地基因库。
关键词:  煤矸石山  植物种多样性  群落稳定性  乌海矿区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.01.027
分类号:X171.4
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“西北干旱荒漠区煤炭基地生态安全保障技术”(2017YFC0504400),“采煤迹地植被重建与保育技术研究”(2017YFC0504402)
Species Diversity and Community Stability at Early Stage of Vegetation Reclamation in Gangue Hill Slope of Wuhai Mining Area
Liu Ying1,2, Xu Li1,2, Feng Fei1,2, Yang Yuping1,2, Zhang Lina1,2
1.College of Desert Control Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China;2.Key Laboratory of Desert Ecosystem Conservation and Restoration, State Forest Administration of China, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The variation laws of community characteristics with different planting years were studied in accordance with the initial stage of vegetation restoration of the slope of a coal gangue heap in the arid area of Northwest China to provide the basis for ecological restoration in Wuhai mining area.[Methods] The Meifang coal gangue heap in Wuhai mining area was taken as the research object, and the growth status of vegetation and community stability in the initial stage of vegetation restoration were compared and analyzed by using the method of sampling and surveying the field samples.[Results] ① The number of species increased significantly during the vegetation restoration. There were only four species of natural invasive plants in the second year of restoration; then, the number increased to six in the third year. In the fourth year, the number of species increased to seven, and the dominant species were Halogeton arachnoideus. The number of natural invasive plant species increased gradually, indicating that the community was undergoing a positive succession process. ② The average vegetation coverage, superterrane biomass, and richness index increased by 1.5 times, with an increase in the restoration years from two to four, indicating that the community structure was gradually becoming stable. ③ The community of the coal gangue hill was in the initial stage of succession when the vegetation was reconstructed for two to four years. The similarity coefficient of community decreased year by year, and the community structure tended to be complicated, but it was still in an unstable state.[Conclusion] In the following vegetation restoration of coal gangue hill, naturally permanent planting of local species that are adaptive for local conditions should be properly promoted when planting typical reclamation plant species, such as Leguminosae, Gramineae, and Compositae. In addition, the local gene bank should be preserved in the coal gangue hill by planting native plant species belonging to the climax stage of succession.
Key words:  coal gangue hill  species diversity  community stability  Wuhai mining area