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黔产薏苡仁及其产地土壤重金属污染的特征
岑如香1, 张旺1, 韦小了1, 付天岭2,3, 何腾兵1,2,3
1.贵州大学 农学院, 贵州 贵阳 550025;2.贵州大学 新农村发展研究院, 贵州 贵阳 550025;3.贵州省山地畜禽养殖污染控制与资源化技术工程实验室, 贵州 贵阳 550025
摘要:
[目的] 探明黔产薏苡仁及其产地土壤重金属污染特征,为黔产薏苡仁产业可持续发展及其产地土壤重金属防控提供科学依据。[方法] 以黔西南薏苡仁及其产地土壤为供试样品,分析测定土壤pH值、有机质、阳离子交换量(CEC)和5种重金属元素镉(Cd)、铅(Pb)、锌(Zn)、铜(Cu)、镍(Ni)的含量,运用GIS和单因子污染风险评价等方法,探讨土壤重金属空间分布和土壤重金属污染对薏苡仁品质安全的影响。[结果] ①土壤中5种重金属Cd,Pb,Zn,Cu和Ni含量范围分别为0.01~1.35,10.09~34.70,80.39~236.36,22.54~131.42,26.75~137.76 mg/kg,其中,Cd,Cu和Ni的最大值均高于国家现行标准(GB15 618-2018),表明研究区土壤中主要存在一定范围的Cd,Cu和Ni污染风险;综合污染指数为1.94,污染等级为轻度污染。②薏苡仁中Cd,Pb,Zn,Cu和Ni含量范围分别为未检测到~0.027,0.179~1.348,42.615~58.961,10.028~16.244,0.552~5.045 mg/kg,Cd未超标,而Pb,Zn,Cu和Ni均有不同程度的超标,超标率依次为90%,25%,75%和30%;薏苡仁对Pb具有很强的累积效应。[结论] 通过同步采集土壤样品和对应的薏苡仁样品,分析结果能更好地评估土壤重金属污染对薏苡仁品质安全的影响。
关键词:  薏苡仁  重金属  空间分布  污染评价  GIS
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.01.015
分类号:X825
基金项目:贵州省科技厅科研机构服务企业行动计划项目“养殖污染控制与废弃物无害化资源化利用技术推广”(黔科合服企[2018]4007(006));贵州省科技厅基础条件平台建设项目(黔科合平台人才[2019]5701);贵州省发展和改革委员会项目(黔发改高技[2017]950)
Characteristics of Heavy Metal Pollution of Coix Seed and Soil from Its Producing Area in Guizhou Province
Cen Ruxiang1, Zhang Wang1, Wei Xiaolao1, Fu Tianling2,3, He Tengbing1,2,3
1.College of Agriculture, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China;2.Institute of New Rural Development, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China;3.Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Resource Reuse Technology of Livestock and Poultry Breeding in Plateau Mountain, Guizhou Province, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The heavy metal pollution of Coix seed and soil in its producing area were studied to provide a scientific basis for the sustainable development of the Guizhou Coix seed industry and the prevention and control of heavy metals in the soil of its origin.[Methods] The Coix seed and the soil of its producing area were used as the test samples. The soil pH value, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and five heavy metal elements, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) were determined using geographic information system and single-factor pollution risk assessment methods to explore the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals and the impact of soil heavy metal pollution on the quality and safety of Coix seeds.[Results] ① The Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni contents in the soil ranged from 0.01 to 1.35, 10.09 to 34.70, 80.39 to 236.36, 22.54 to 131.42, and 26.75 to 137.76 mg/kg, respectively, of which the maximum values of Cd, Cu, and Ni were higher than the current national standard (GB15618-2018), indicating that there was a certain range of Cd, Cu, and Ni pollution risk in the soil in the study area. The comprehensive pollution index was 1.94, and the pollution level was light pollution. ② The contents of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni in the Coix seed ranged from not detected to 0.027, 0.179 to 1.348, 42.615 to 58.961, 10.028 to 16.244, and 0.552 to 5.045 mg/kg, respectively. Cd did not exceed the standard, while Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni exceeded the standard by varying degrees, with the exceeding rates being 90%, 25%, 75%, and 30%, respectively. Coix seed had a strong cumulative effect of Pb.[Conclusion] By simultaneously collecting soil samples and corresponding Coix seed samples, the analysis results can be used to evaluate the impact of soil heavy metal pollution on the quality and safety of Coix seed.
Key words:  Coix seed  heavy metals  spatial distribution  pollution assessment  GIS