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不同降水对荒漠灌丛土壤理化性质和地表植被分布的影响
郭志霞1, 刘任涛2, 冯永宏1, 王文帆1, 蒋嘉瑜2
1.宁夏大学 农学院, 宁夏 银川 750021;2.宁夏大学 西北土地退化与生态恢复国家重点实验室培育基地, 宁夏 银川 750021
摘要:
[目的] 揭示荒漠灌丛土壤理化性质及地表草本分布特征对降水分布变化的响应,为干旱风沙区人工植被建设模式选择、沙漠化防治及未来应对气候变化提供依据。[方法] 在榆林市榆阳区、盐池县、沙坡头保护区,以共有人工栽植灌丛柠条(Caragana korshinskii)、油蒿(Artemisia ordosica)为研究对象,以灌丛外裸地为对照,测定了灌丛内外微生境中土壤含水量、容重、pH值、电导率、全碳、全氮及土壤粒径含量,并调查了灌丛内外微生境地表草本植被分布特征。[结果] ①榆阳研究区柠条灌丛显著提高土壤粗沙粒含量、草本植物个体数,降低土壤容重、土壤pH值;油蒿灌丛显著提高土壤黏粉粒含量、全碳、全氮(p<0.05),降低草本植物物种数。盐池研究区柠条灌丛增加土壤全碳、全氮、草本植物高度,降低土壤细沙粒含量、土壤容重、草本植物物种数;油蒿灌丛降低土壤黏粉粒含量、草本植物物种数。沙坡头研究区柠条灌丛降低土壤电导率;油蒿灌丛下无草本植物。②从沙坡头到榆阳区,随降水量增加,灌丛微生境土壤细沙粒含量、土壤容重和土壤电导率降低,而土壤养分相对增加,草本植物物种数、个体数、高度均相对增加。[结论] 荒漠区造林策略取决于灌丛种类和降水分布。榆阳研究区栽植柠条和油蒿灌丛、盐池研究区栽植柠条灌丛、沙坡头研究区栽植柠条灌丛更有利于促进沙漠化治理与固沙林地土壤-植被系统恢复。
关键词:  荒漠区  灌丛  土壤理化性质  地表草本植被  降水
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.01.009
分类号:Q948.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“腾格里沙漠固沙造林后植被恢复对土壤节肢动物多样性分布的影响”(41867005),“荒漠灌丛对土壤动物的“聚集—扩散”效应”(41661054);宁夏青年拔尖人才培养工程项目“国家级学术技术带头人”人才培养(RQ0010);宁夏自然科学基金“荒漠蚂蚁群落与植物间的互作关系对固沙造林生态恢复的影响”(2020AAC02014)
Effects of Different Precipitation on Soil Properties and Ground Vegetation Distribution in Desert Shrub Microhabitats
Guo Zhixia1, Liu Rentao2, Feng Yonghong1, Wang Wenfan1, Jiang Jiayu2
1.College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China;2.Key Laboratory for Restoration and Reconstruction of Degraded Ecosystem in Northwest China, ministry of Education, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The distribution of soil physical and chemical properties and herbaceous vegetation among desert shrub microhabitats and their responses to precipitation change were studied to provide a basis for artificial afforestation and desertification control under future climate change in arid desertified regions.[Methods] The afforested shrubs, including Caragana korshinskii and Artemisia ordosica, were selected as research objects. The microhabitats inside and outside shrub canopies were set as sampling sites. At each sampling site, soil water content, bulk density, pH value, electrical conductivity, total carbon, total nitrogen, and soil particle size were measured, and the distribution of herbaceous vegetation was investigated, along with the climatic gradient, in the Yuyang, Yanchi, and Shapotou areas.[Results] ① In Yuyang area, soil coarse sand content and herbaceous abundance significantly increased, while the soil bulk density and soil pH value decreased in the C. korshinskii shrub microhabitats relative to the open space. Soil clay content, total carbon, and total nitrogen significantly increased, while herbaceous abundance declined in the A. ordosica shrub microhabitats relative to the open space. In Yanchi area, soil total carbon, total nitrogen, and herbaceous plant height increased, while soil fine sand content, soil bulk density, and herbaceous species richness decreased in the C. korshinskii shrub microhabitats relative to the open space. Soil clay content and herbaceous species richness decreased in the A. ordosica shrub microhabitats relative to the open space. In Shapotou area, soil electrical conductivity decreased in the C. korshinskii shrub microhabitats, while there were no herbaceous plants observed in A. ordosica shrub microhabitats relative to the open space. ② Along with the increase in the precipitation amount from the Shapotou area toward the Yuyang area, soil fine sand content, soil bulk density, and soil electrical conductivity decreased, while soil nutrients and herbaceous species richness, abundance, and height increased.[Conclusion] The afforestation strategies in desertified regions depended on shrub species and the precipitation distribution. C. korshinskii and A. ordosica shrubs afforested in Yuyang, C. korshinskii shrubs afforested in Yanchi, and C. korshinskii shrubs afforested in Shapotou could be an option for the recovery of soil-vegetation systems in desertified regions.
Key words:  desertified region  shrub  soil proprieties  herbaceous vegetation  precipitation