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河南省巩义市土地利用演化及其生态系统服务价值响应
贾琦
作者单位
贾琦 郑州轻工业大学 环境设计系, 河南 郑州 450002 
摘要:
[目的] 从格网尺度探讨河南省巩义市1990-2019年区域土地利用演化及其生态系统服务价值(ESV)响应特征,为同类地区的快速城镇化地区生态系统保护和国土空间规划提供决策依据。[方法] 以河南省巩义市1990-2019年4期土地利用解译数据为基础,在格网尺度下,基于修正后的生态系统服务价值当量,估算巩义市生态系统服务价值,并深入探讨其空间自相关特征。[结果] ①研究期间,巩义市建设用地增幅最高,与此相反,水域和灌木林则出现大幅减少,两者降幅分别为-45.17%和-10.09%。用地类型转移方面,水域和耕地转出面积最多,主要转出类型分别为耕地和建设用地。②生态系统服务价值整体呈现出波动式下跌的趋势,近30 a共减少了34.851亿元。水域、乔木林和耕地是巩义市ESV的主要组成部分。从变化特征来看,水域ESV跌幅明显,共减少了35.549亿元。以水文调节和气候调节为主的调节服务在区域ESV构成中占主导地位,同时其近30 a来的损失率也处于高位。③空间探索性分析发现,ESV近30 a出现了大幅下降,区域城镇化进程对生态系统影响的负面效应显著,北部以水域、耕地和建设用地为主的ESV高值区和低值区变化较明显,南部以林地和高覆盖度草地为主的生态资源集中区则变化相对稳定。1990年ESV较高区域集中在黄河、伊洛河沿线及南部伏羲山等地,而ESV较低区域则主要以巩义市区及东西地形较为平坦区域一带;2000年以后,高值片区快速减少且多集中在黄河沿线;2000-2010年,主城区低值ESV区域受快速城镇扩张影响逐步蔓延,在城区及巩义-芝田镇-回郭镇、巩义-竹林镇-米河镇等西向和东向两条带状片区已形成ESV低值集聚区。[结论] 巩义市建设用地扩张加剧,由此引发的区域生态系统持续下降,且空间分布与人类社会经济发展紧密相关。
关键词:  土地利用演化  生态系统服务价值  空间自相关  格网  河南省巩义市
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.06.036
分类号:TU984.115
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“基于多源数据与人工智能的大都市区‘三生’空间演化仿真及分类管控研究”(52008380);河南省哲学社会科学规划课题(2020CJJ102);河南省自然科学基金项目(202300410499);河南省高层次人才国际化培养资助项目(豫科[2020]145号)
Evolution of Land Use and its Response of Ecosystem Service Value in Gongyi City of He'nan Province
Jia Qi
Abstract:
[Objective] Based on the scale of network unit, the regional land use evolution and its ecosystem service value response characteristics from 1990 to 2019 were studied in order to provide decision-making basis for ecosystem protection and land spatial planning in rapid urbanization area represented by Gongyi City.[Methods] Based on the interpretation data of land use from 1990 to 2019 and the modified ESV equivalent at the grid scale, the ecosystem service value was estimated at Gongyi City, He'nan Province, and its spatial auto-correlation characteristics were discussed.[Results] ① During the study period, the growth rate of construction land in Gongyi City was the highest, on the contrary, the water area and shrubbery decreased significantly, with a decline of -45.17% and -10.09% respectively. In terms of land type transfer, the area of water and cultivated land was the most, and the main transfer out types were cultivated land and construction land. ② The value of ecosystem services showed a fluctuating downward trend, with a total decrease of 3.485 billion yuan in the past 30 years. Water area, arbor forest and cultivated land were the main components of ESV in Gongyi City. From the perspective of change characteristics, ESV in water area decreased significantly, with a total decrease of 3 554.9 million yuan. The regulation services dominated by hydrological regulation and climate regulation played a leading role in the composition of regional ESV, and its loss rate in the past 30 years was at a high level. ③ Spatial exploratory analysis showed that ESV had declined significantly in recent 30 years, and the negative effects of regional urbanization process on ecosystem were significant. The changes of high and low value areas of ESV in the north were mainly water area, cultivated land and construction land, while those in the south were mainly forestland and high coverage grassland, which were relatively stable. In 1990, the higher ESV areas were concentrated along the Yellow River, Yiluo River and Fuxi Mountain in the south, while the areas with lower ESV were mainly Gongyi City and the areas with relatively flat terrains in the east and the west. After 2000, the areas with higher ESV were rapidly reduced and mostly concentrated along the Yellow River. During 2000-2010, the low value ESV area in the main urban area gradually spread under the influence of rapid urban expansion. The low value concentration area of ESV had been formed in the urban area and the west and east oriented two belt areas of Gongyi City-Zhitian Town-Huiguo Town and Gongyi City-Zhulin Town-Mihe Town.[Conclusion] The expansion of construction land in Gongyi City is intensified, which leads to the continuous decline of regional ecosystem, and the spatial distribution is closely related to the development of human society and economy.
Key words:  land use evolution  ecosystem service value  spatial autocorrelation  grid  Gongyi City of He'nan Province