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安徽省淮南市城市湿地景观格局及其脆弱性——以大通废弃矿生态湿地修复区为例
王楠1,2, 汪桂生1,2, 郭伟玲1,2
1.安徽理工大学 空间信息与测绘工程学院, 安徽 淮南 232001;2.矿山采动灾害空天地协同监测与预警安徽省教育厅重点实验室, 安徽 淮南 232001
摘要:
[目的] 对城市湿地景观格局及其脆弱性进行研究,为城市湿地保护和可持续发展提供科学依据。[方法] 以安徽省淮南市大通城市湿地为例,基于高空间分辨率WorldView-3遥感影像,提取景观类型分布信息,选取景观多样性指数、斑块密度、斑块数量等景观空间结构指标,综合利用地理信息系统(GIS)技术与景观生态学方法定量分析大通城市湿地的景观格局及其异质性。基于景观敏感度和适应度指数构建景观脆弱度评价模型,进而评价大通城市湿地的景观脆弱度。[结果] ①大通湿地内景观类型以乔木、水体和裸地等类型为主,各类型的数量规模相对均衡;②各景观类型在空间上呈交错分布,形成明显的"网状结构",水体、裸地和水杉林分布相对连续,其他景观的破碎化程度较高,呈现出异质性;③景观格局脆弱度以低脆弱度为主,呈现显著空间正自相关性和空间聚集模式,主要集聚类型的"高-高"值集聚区域及脆弱度的热点区主要分布东部裸地,"低-低"值集聚区及脆弱度冷点主要分布在水体区。④景观脆弱度与植被覆盖度、景观格局的复杂度具有空间一致性,即植被覆盖越高且空间分布的交错性越强,其脆弱性越小。[结论] 大通湿地内景观类型主要包括乔木、水体和裸地,景观脆弱性以低脆弱度为主,空间上表现为显著的集聚模式,且与植被覆盖度、景观格局的复杂度具有空间一致性。
关键词:  空间异质性  景观格局脆弱性  WorldView-3  热点分析  莫兰指数  城市湿地
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.06.024
分类号:X826
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“国家水资源动态评价关键技术与应用”子课题“农业用水动态评价与需水预测”(2018YFC0407703-1);国家自然科学基金项目(41501294);安徽省留学人员创新项目择优计划项目(1X030);安徽省高校自然科学研究项目(KJ2019A0136);安徽省高等学校自然科学研究项目(KJ2017A072);安徽理工大学青年教师科学研究基金项目(QN201639);安徽理工大学引进人才科研启动项目(ZY529,12896)
Landscape Pattern and Its Vulnerability of Urban Wetland at Huainan County, Anhui Province—A Case Study at Datong Abandoned Mine Ecological Wetland Restoration Area
Wang Nan1,2, Wang Guisheng1,2, Guo Weiling1,2
1.School of Spatial Information and Geomatics Engineering, Anhui University of Science & Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001, China;2.Key Laboratory of Aviation-aerospace-ground Cooperative Monitoring and Early Warning of Coal Mining-induced Disasters of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Huainan, Anhui 232001, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The landscape pattern and its vulnerability of urban wetland were investigated in order to provide a scientific basis for urban wetland protection and sustainable development.[Methods] Based on the high-resolution WorldView-3 remote sensing images, the distribution information of landscape types was extracted, and the landscape spatial structure indicators including landscape diversity index, patch density and number of patches were selected, and the spatial pattern and heterogeneity of landscape composition as well as the landscape vulnerability were evaluated by using geographic information system technology and theory of landscape ecology in the Datong wetland of Huainan City in Anhui Province. Based on the landscape sensitivity and fitness indexes, the landscape vulnerability assessment model was constructed to evaluate the landscape vulnerability of Datong urban wetlands.[Results] ① The landscapes in Datong wetland with balanced area scale were dominated by arbor, water, and bare land. ② The landscapes were interlaced in space and formed a distinct "network structure", among which, the water, bare land, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides were continuously distributed, while the others were highly fragmented and heterogeneous. ③ The vulnerability of landscape pattern was dominated by low vulnerability, showing significant positive spatial autocorrelation and spatial aggregation pattern. The main "high-high" value aggregation areas and vulnerability hot spots were mainly distributed in eastern bare land. The "low-low" value agglomeration area and vulnerability cold spots were mainly distributed in the water body area. ④ Landscape vulnerability was consistent with vegetation coverage and landscape pattern complexity, that was, the higher the vegetation coverage and the greater the interlace of spatial distribution, the less vulnerable it was.[Conclusion] The landscape types in the Datong wetland mainly include arbor, water bodies, and bare land. The vulnerability of the landscape is mainly low, and shows a significant spatial agglomeration pattern. It has spatial consistency with the vegetation coverage and the complexity of the landscape pattern.
Key words:  spatial heterogeneity  vulnerability of landscape pattern  WorldView-3  hot spot analysis  Moran index  urban wetland