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甘肃省沿黄灌区春小麦与披碱草/苜蓿混播对土壤盐渍化的影响
李昂1,2, 曹素珍1, 李雪1, 李昌明1,2, 韩凡香1, 吴应珍3, 葛承暄4
1.兰州城市学院 地理与环境工程学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070;2.甘肃省矿区污染治理与生态修复工程研究中心, 甘肃 兰州 730070;3.甘肃农业大学 马克思主义学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070;4.甘肃省耕地质量建设保护总站, 甘肃 兰州 730000
摘要:
[目的] 研究甘肃省沿黄灌区耕地撂荒、种植春播作物与豆禾混播牧草对土壤盐渍化的影响,为该区生物措施防治土壤盐碱提供科学依据。[方法] 以裸地(CK)、小麦(Triticum aestivum)、披碱草和苜蓿(Elymus nutans/Medicago sativa)混播为研究对象,测定地表植被和微环境相关指标及表土(0-5 cm)水、盐含量,分析植被与盐含量间定量关系。[结果] 裸地盐含量全年呈W形变化,初春、夏末和秋末为3个高峰期;麦地呈U形变化趋势,高峰在初春和秋末;混播牧草地仅初春盐含量较高。秋末,麦地盐含量较裸地高18.4%,而牧草地较裸地低55.9%。对比2 a 3月的土壤盐含量,裸地和小麦地分别提高了23.7%和14.8%,而牧草地却降低了28.2%。植被特征指标与表土盐含量间呈极显著负相关(p<0.01),其中植被盖度与盐含量间相关性最强(达-0.916)。植被的盖度、高度和生物量每提高1%,1 cm和1 g/m2,将使表土盐含量分别降低0.031,0.139,0.014 g/kg。[结论] 甘肃省沿黄灌区耕地撂荒和种植生育期较短春播作物易造成表土积盐和引发土壤次生盐渍化危害,而种植多年生豆禾混播牧草可降低表土盐含量和预防土壤盐渍化。
关键词:  沿黄灌区  土壤盐分  农田生态保育  牧草混播
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.06.008
分类号:S156
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“豆禾牧草混播防治兰州新区周边耕地土壤退化机理研究”(31560185);甘肃省高等学校创新能力提升项目“甘肃灌区农田生态保育种植模式优化及耕地质量保护与提升技术研究”(2019A-132)
Effects of Spring Wheat and Mixture Sowed Elymus Nutans and Medicago Sativa on Soil Salinity in Irrigated Areas Along Yellow River in Gansu Province
Li Ang1,2, Cao Suzhen1, Li Xue1, Li Changming1,2, Han Fanxiang1, Wu Yingzhen3, Ge Chengxuan4
1.College of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China;2.The Engineering Research Center of Mining Pollution Treatment and Ecological Restoration of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China;3.College of Marxism, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China;4.Gansu Provincial Cultivated Land Quality Construction and Protection Station, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of abandoned farmland, planting spring-sown crops and mixed sowing of legume and herbal grass on soil salinity were analyzed in order to provide scientific support for the prevention and control of soil salinization by using biological measures in irrigated areas along the Yellow River in Gansu Province.[Methods] Bare land (CK), Triticum aestivum and mixed grass (Elymus nutans×Medicago sativa) were employed to conduct treatments. Indicators related to vegetation and micro-environment and topsoil (0-5 cm) moisture and salinity were measured to analyze the relationship between vegetation characteristic index and salt content.[Results] The salinity of topsoil in bare land showed a W-shaped curve pattern throughout the year, with three peaks occurring in early spring, late summer and late autumn. The salinity in wheat land showed a U-shaped trend with the peak in early spring and late autumn. The salinity in mixed grass land was only higher in the early spring. By the end of autumn (October), the salinity of topsoil in wheat field was 18.4% higher than that in bare land, while in grassland, was 55.9% lower than that in bare land. Compared with that in the March of two consecutive years, soil salinity in bare and wheat fields increased by 23.7% and 14.8% respectively, while in pasture field, decreased by 28.2%. There were extremely significant negative correlation between vegetation characteristics and salinity (p<0.01), among them, the negative correlation between vegetation coverage and salinity was the strongest (up to -0.916). With the increase of vegetation coverage, height, and biomass by 1%, 1 cm and 1 g/m2, the soil salinity would reduced by 0.031, 0.139 and 0.014 g/kg.[Conclusion] Abandoned farmland and short growing period of spring-sown crops are easy to cause salt accumulation of topsoil and soil secondary salinization in irrigated areas along the Yellow River in Gansu Province, while mixed planting legume and grass with long growth period can effectively reduce topsoil salinity and prevent soil salinization.
Key words:  irrigated areas along the Yellow River  soil salinity  farmland ecological conservation  mixed sowing of pasture