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黄土高原典型生物结皮对坡面产流产沙过程的影响
许欢欢1, 张宝琦1, 汪建芳1, 王兵1,2
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
[目的] 明确不同类型生物结皮坡面产流产沙过程及其影响因素,为评价生物结皮的水土保持功能提供理论依据。[方法] 选取黄土高原常见藻结皮和苔藓结皮为研究对象,系统研究降雨条件下结皮类型及破坏前后对坡面产流产沙的影响。[结果] ①生物结皮可显著增强土壤黏结力,藻结皮和苔藓结皮土壤黏结力是裸地(4.53 kPa)的1.52倍和1.25倍,结皮破坏后其土壤黏结力仍高于裸地,分别是裸地的1.22,1.10倍;②生物结皮可以增加坡面产流,抑制坡面产沙。藻结皮和苔藓结皮产流量分别增加了21.64%和55.75%,产沙量分别减少了94.06%和89.24%。结皮破坏后,产流量分别增加了58.76%和59.66%,产沙量分别减少了16.18%和29.45%,仍可促进产流,抑制产沙;③随累积径流量的增加,累积产沙量增长速度由大到小依次为:裸地 > 藻结皮去除 > 苔藓结皮去除 > 苔藓结皮覆盖 > 藻结皮覆盖。黏结力是表征生物结皮抑制土壤侵蚀的有效指标。随黏结力的增大,产沙量呈线性降低(R2=0.66)。[结论] 增加生物结皮覆盖并有效防止生物结皮被破坏,可最大程度发挥其水土保持功能。
关键词:  藻结皮  苔藓结皮  黏结力  径流  泥沙
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.06.002
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“基于RUSLE模型的黄土高原草地植被覆盖因子研究”(41771555);国家自然科学基金重点项目“退耕驱动近地表特性变化对侵蚀过程的影响及其动力机制”(41530858)
Effects of Typical Biological Crusts on Slope Runoff and Sediment Load in Loess Plateau Region
Xu Huanhuan1, Zhang Baoqi1, Wang Jianfang1, Wang Bing1,2
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Agriculture on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The process of slope runoff and sediment yield and its influencing factors of different types of biological soil crust were clarified in order to provide theoretical basis for evaluating soil and water conservation function of biological soil crust.[Methods] The common cyanobacterial crust and moss crust in the Loess Plateau region were selected as the research objects, to systematically study the effects of crust types and destruction on runoff and sediment yield under the condition of rainfall.[Results] ① The coverage of biocrusts could significantly enhance the cohesion of soil surface. Soil surface cohesion of cyanobacterial crust and moss crust were 1.52 and 1.25 times higher than that on bare land (4.53 kPa), respectively. After the biocrusts were destroyed, the soil cohesion of soil surface was still higher than that of bare land, which was 1.22 and 1.10 times of that of bare land, respectively. ② Biocrusts could increase slope runoff and inhibited slope sediment yield. Compared with bare soil condition, cyanobacterial crust and moss crust increased the total runoff by 21.64% and 55.75% respectively, and decreased the sediment yield by 94.06% and 89.24% respectively. After the biorusts were destroyed, it could still promote runoff and inhibit sediment yield. The runoff was increased by 58.76% and 59.66%, and the sediment yield was decreased by 16.18% and 29.45%. ③ With the increase of cumulative runoff, the increasing rate of cumulative sediment yield from large to small was as follows:bare land > cyanobacterial crust removal > moss crust removal > moss crust coverage > cyanobacterial crust coverage. Cohesion was an effective indicator of biological crust to inhibit soil erosion. With the increase of cohesion, the sediment yield decreased linearly (R2=0.66).[Conclusion] By increasing the biological soil crust coverage and prevent the biological crust from being damages, its function of soil and water conservation could be maximized.
Key words:  cyanobacterial crust  moss crust  cohesion  runoff  sediment