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开都-孔雀河流域土地利用转型及其功能变化特征
阿迪莱·如则, 阿依吐尔逊·沙木西, 古丽米热·艾尔肯
新疆农业大学 管理学院, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052
摘要:
[目的] 探讨开都—孔雀河流域(以下简称“开孔河流域”)土地利用功能转型特征及生态环境效应,揭示土地利用转型对区域生态环境造成的影响,为该区生态环境保护和可持续发展提供科学参考。[方法] 基于1990,2000,2010和2015年开孔河流域土地利用遥感解译数据,根据“生产—生态—生活”用地(以下简称“三生用地”)的主导功能分类,通过土地利用转移矩阵、区域生态环境质量指数和土地利用转型的生态贡献率等方法定量分析开孔河流域土地利用转型、时空格局特征以及生态环境效应。[结果] ①1990—2015年,开孔河流域的土地利用转型表现为生产用地、生活用地的快速增加,生态用地的迅速减少。②1990—2000年开孔河流域生态环境质量指数从0.465 4下降为0.453 9,2010—2015年上升到0.455 9。生态环境质量保持相对平衡,并呈现先下降后上升的发展趋势;③1990—2015年,开孔河流域上游生态环境质量较高但存在恶化趋势,中游地区生态环境质量持续得到改善,流域下游主要为低质量区和较低质量区。[结论] 农业生产用地、城乡生活用地面积增加与草地退化和水域生态用地被占用是造成流域生态环境退化的主要原因,中游地区生态环境质量持续得到改善的原因是大量其他生态用地转型为林地生态用地。
关键词:  土地利用主导功能  土地利用转型  生态环境效应  开都—孔雀河流域
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.20200522.001
分类号:F301.2
基金项目:新疆农业大学博士后资助项目“塔里木河流域未利用地转型的生态风险与响应机制研究”(185792);国家社会科学基金西部项目“新疆少数民族地区农村土地确权及其成效调查研究”(2017XMZ099)
Characteristics of Land Use Transformation and Its Function Change in Kaidu-Kongque River Basin
Adilai·Ruze, Ayituerxun·Shamuxi, Gulimire·Aierken
College of Management, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The characteristics of land use function transformation and ecological environment effect in Kaidu-Kongque River basin was studied to reveal the impact of land use transformation on regional ecological environment, in order to provide scientific reference for ecological environment protection and sustainable development. [Methods] Based on the remote sensing interpretation data of land use in Kaidu-Kongque River basin in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015, and according to the classification of the dominant functions of land use in “production-ecology-life”, the land use transfer matrix, regional eco-environmental quality index and the ecological contribution rate of land use transformation were used to quantitatively analyze the characteristics of land use transformation and spatial-temporal pattern in Kaidu-Kongque River basin.[Results] ① From 1990 to 2015, the transformation of land-use in Kaidu-Kongque River basin showed a rapid increase in production land and living land, and a rapid decrease in ecological land. ② From 1990 to 2000, the eco-environmental quality index of Kaidu-Kongque River basin decreased from 0.465 4 to 0.453 9, while rose to 0.455 9 from 2010 to 2015. The quality of ecological environment kept a relative balance, and showed a trend of decline first and then rise. ③ From 1990 to 2015, the ecological environment quality in the upper reaches of the Kaidu-Kongque River basin was relatively high, but there was a trend of deterioration. The ecological environment quality in the middle reaches of the basin was improved continuously, while the lower reaches of the basin were mainly low-quality areas. [Conclusion] The increase in agricultural production land, urban and rural living land area and degradation in grassland, and the occupation of ecological water land are the main reasons for the degradation of ecological environment in the basin, and the ecological environment improvement in the middle reaches is due to the transformation of a large number of other ecological land into forest ecological land.
Key words:  dominant function of land use  land use transformation  ecological environment effect  Kaidu-Kongque River basin