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长期施用保水剂对小麦生长和水分利用的影响
康永亮1,2, 武继承3,2, 郑惠玲4, 杨永辉3,2, 潘晓莹3,2, 田志浩1
1.禹州市农业技术推广中心, 河南 禹州 461670;2.农业部作物高效用水原阳科学观测试验站, 河南 原阳 453514;3.河南省农业科学院 植物营养与资源环境研究所, 河南 郑州 450002;4.河南省土壤肥料站, 河南 郑州 450008
摘要:
[目的] 开展保水剂长期施用对作物增产和水分利用效率的研究,为探索浅山丘陵旱作区资源利用效率和生产效率的关键提升技术提供科学依据。[方法] 采取田间定位试验的方法于2011—2019年在河南省农科院节水农业禹州基地进行了不同保水剂用量对小麦产量与水分利用的影响研究。试验设置未施保水剂(CK)、保水剂15 kg/hm2(F)、保水剂30 kg/hm2(T)、保水剂45 kg/hm2(V)等4个处理。[结果] ①同一年份施用保水剂处理随小麦生长发育土壤耗水量略有增加,各处理表现为:V > T > F > CK;不同年份之间,贫水年土壤耗水量相对较大,富水年增减不一,表现为:2019年 > 2014年 > 2015年 > 2011年 > 2012年 > 2016年 > 2018年 > 2013年 > 2017年。②小麦总耗水量与生育期降水量趋势基本一致,即不同年份之间丰水年小麦总耗水量较大,贫水年总耗水量较小。③施用保水剂处理有利于改善小麦生长发育,提高单位群体数量、株高、穗长、小穗数、穗粒数和千粒质量,减少不孕穗。④小麦产量表现为:V > T > F > CK,保水剂处理较CK增产2.31%~19.20%。随着施用年限延长,F处理至第4 a后对小麦的增产幅度趋于稳定,T处理的增产率随施用年限的增加逐步提升,V处理则表现为先增再减再逐步提高的过程。⑤单位净收益、水分利用效率与产量的趋势一致。水分利用效率不同年份间表现为先降低再升高(2012—2016年),再降低再升高(2017—2019年)的过程。与土壤耗水量变化趋势一致,与贫水年降水量、总耗水量的变化趋势相反。并以V处理的水分利用效率提高幅度最大,较CK提高1.70~4.51 kg/(hm2·mm)。⑥小麦产量、水分利用效率、土壤耗水量、总耗水量之间呈显著的正相关关系。[结论] 基于不同降水年型、小麦产量、水分利用效率、净收益等综合考虑,小麦最佳的保水剂用量为45 kg/hm2
关键词:  保水剂  小麦  水分利用  长期施用  旱地
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.04.012
分类号:S152.7
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“豫中补灌区小麦水肥一体化技术与示范”(2018YFD0300703),“小麦—玉米两熟制水肥一体化关键技术”(2017YFD0301102);国家863计划项目“作物生境过程土肥联合调控技术研究与示范”(2013AA102904-2)
Effects of Long-term Application of Water Absorbent on Winter Wheat Growth and Water Use efficiency
Kang Yongliang1,2, Wu Jicheng3,2, Zheng Huiling4, Yang Yonghui3,2, Pan Xiaoying3,2, Tian Zhihao1
1.Yuzhou Agricultural Technology Extension Center, Yuzhou, He'nan 461670, China;2.Yuanyang Experimental Station of Crop Water Use, Ministry of Agriculture, Yuanyang, He'nan 453514, China;3.Institute of Plant Nutrition&Resource Environment, He'nan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, He'nan 450002, China;4.He'nan Station of Soil and Fertilizer, Zhengzhou, He'nan 450008, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of long-term application of water absorbent on crop yield and water use efficiency were investigated in order to provide scientific basis for exploring the key technologies to improve the resource use and production efficiency in dryland of shallow hilly regions. [Methods] Field experiment was conducted in Yuzhou base of He'nan Academy of Agricultural Sciences from 2011 to 2019, to study the effects of different amounts of water absorbent on winter wheat yield and water use efficiency. Four treatments were set up including no water absorbent (CK), 15 kg/hm2 (F), 30 kg/hm2 (T), and 45 kg/hm2 (V) water absorbent. [Results] ① The soil water consumption increased slightly with winter wheat growth and development of wheat under the application of water absorbent in the same year, and the soil water consumption showed as: V > T > F > CK. In different years, the soil water consumption in the poor water years was relatively larger, and the increase and decrease in the rich water years was different as follows: 2019 > 2014 > 2015 > 2011 > 2012 > 2016 > 2018 > 2013 > 2017. ② The trend of total water consumption of wheat was basically consistent with that of precipitation in growth period, and the total water consumption of wheat in wet year was larger than that in poor water years. ③ The application of water absorbent treatment was beneficial to improve the growth and development of wheat, which could increase the number of unit population, plant height, spike length, spikelet number, grain number per spike and 1 000-grain weight, and reduce sterility. ④ The yield of winter wheat was as follows: V > T > F > CK. The yield of water absorbent treatments was 2.31% to 19.20% higher than that of CK. With the extension of the application years, the yield increase of treatment F tended to be stable after 4 years. The yield increase rate of treatment T increased gradually with the increase of application years, while that of V treatment increased first and then decreased and then increased gradually. ⑤ The net income and water use efficiency of winter wheat had the same tendency with the yield. Water use efficiency showed a process of decreasing first, then increasing (2012—2016), then decreasing and then increasing (2017—2019). It was consistent with the trend of soil water consumption, while opposite to the trend of precipitation and total water consumption in the poor water years. Compared with CK, the water use efficiency of V treatment increased by 1.70~4.51 kg/(hm2·mm). ⑥ There was a significant positive correlation among wheat yield, water use efficiency, soil water consumption and total water consumption. [Conclusion] Based on the comprehensive consideration of different precipitation types, wheat yield, water use efficiency and net income, the optimal amount of water absorbent for winter wheat is 45 kg/hm2.
Key words:  wheat  water absorbent  water use  long-term application  dryland