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川北地形过渡带地形因子对土地利用与景观格局变化的影响
刘涛, 侯兰功
西南科技大学 土木工程与建筑学院, 四川 绵阳 621000
摘要:
[目的] 基于地形特征分析不同用地类型时空分布变化,不仅能解释土地利用时空变化规律,并能更进一步为优化土地利用结果,生态环境保护奠定基础。[方法] 基于四川省北部江油市2003,2010,2018年3期遥感影像,运用土地利用转移矩阵法,分析不同用地类型之间的转化情况;接着利用地形位指数法、分布指数法,分析地形因子影响下不同用地类型分布指数变化特征;之后利用移动窗口法,探究景观格局中斑块密度与Shannon多样性指数时空变化规律;最后结合双变量空间相关性分析,分析地形因子与景观指数间的空间相关性特征。[结果] ①在2003—2010年期间,水田面积减少最多(减少面积2 238.98 hm2),建设用地面积增加最多(面积增加3 360.36 hm2);在2010—2018年期间,水田面积减少1 175.84 hm2,建设用地面积增加1 614.78 hm2;2003—2010年期间江油市土地利用的变化量整体高于2010—2018年。②北部山区主要由旱地转移为林草地,南部平原地区主要为水田转移为建设用地,中部丘陵区域旱地和水田相互转化强烈。③随时间变化,旱地和未利用地优势等级向中地形位等级靠拢;低地形位等级上建设用地、水田和水域优势度逐渐降低,并具有优势等级向较高地形位等级扩展趋势。④山区河流沿岸以及山地平原交汇处斑块密度与Shannon多样性指数较高,且呈线性分布;随时间变化,丘陵区域斑块密度增加,主城区附近Shannon多样性指数呈下降趋势。⑤高—高聚集区主要表现为向山地丘陵交汇处聚集;城区附近景观指数因受其他因素影响较多,导致该区域景观指数与地形位指数呈现出不显著相关性。[结论] 在地形过渡带区域,不同地貌对于各类用地变化的影响在时空上存在差异性,其地形因子与景观指数的空间相关性差异明显。
关键词:  地形过渡带  地形因子  土地利用变化  空间相关性  四川省江油市
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.04.011
分类号:F301.2;K93
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“山地丘陵城市建成区时空扩展与城市韧性协调发展研究:以绵阳市为例”(41701172);四川省教育厅自然科学项目(15ZA0123)
Effects of Terrain Factors on Land Use and landscape Pattern Change in Terrain Transition Zone of Northern Sichuan Province
Liu Tao, Hou Langong
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The temporal and spatial distribution changes of different land use types based on topographic characteristics were studied in order to provide the basis for optimizing land use and ecological environmental protection. [Methods] Based on the remote sensing images of Jiangyou City in Northern Sichuan Province in 2003, 2010, and 2018, the land-use transfer matrix method was used to analyze the conversion between different types of land use. The topographic index method and distribution index method was used to analyze different land uses under the influence of topographic factors. Then, the moving window method was used to explore the spatial and temporal changes of patch density and Shannon's diversity index. Finally, the spatial and temporal changes between topographic factors and landscape indexes were analyzed by combining the two-variable spatial correlation analysis. [Results] ① From 2003 to 2010, the paddy field area decreased the most, with a reduction of 2 238.98 hm2, while the construction land area increased the most, with an increase of 3 330.36 hm2 during 2010—2018. The paddy field area decreased by 1 175.84 hm2, and the construction land area increased by 1 614.78 hm2. The total amount of land use change in Jiangyou City during 2003—2010 was higher than that in 2010—2018. ② The land transfer in the northern mountainous areas was mainly from dry land to forest grassland, the southern plains were mainly from paddy fields to construction land, and the dry land and paddy fields in the central hilly region were strongly transformed. ③ Over time, the advantages of dry land and unused land had moved closer to the middle terrain level, the dominance of construction land, paddy fields, and water areas had gradually decreased on the low terrain level, and the advantage level had a tendency to expand to higher terrain level. ④ The patch density and Shannon diversity index were higher along mountain river banks and at the intersection of hills and plains, and showed a linear distribution. The patch density in hilly areas increased with time, and the Shannon diversity index near the main urban area showed a downward trend. ⑤ The high clustering area was mainly distributed at the intersection of hills and mountains, the landscape index near the urban area was affected by other factors, which causes the area's landscape index to show insignificant correlation with the topographical level index. [Conclusion] In the area of terrain transition zone, the impacts of different landforms on the changes of various land use types are different in time and space, and the spatial correlation between the terrain factor and the landscape index is obviously different.
Key words:  terrain transition zone  topographic factors  spatial-temporal changes in land use  spatial correlation  Jiangyou City of Sichuan Province