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新疆维吾尔自治区1981-2018年降雨侵蚀力的空间变化特征
伊力哈木·伊马木
新疆维吾尔自治区水土保持生态环境监测总站, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830000
摘要:
[目的] 分析1981—2018年新疆维吾尔自治区降雨侵蚀力空间变化特征,为该区土壤水力侵蚀理论研究和开展水土保持相关实践工作提供科学参考。[方法] 以1981—2018年新疆38个气象站的逐日降雨资料为基础,采用半月降雨侵蚀力算法模型计算降雨侵蚀力因子R,进而反映降雨对土壤侵蚀的内在作用,并采用倾向率和Kriging插值方法分析新疆降雨侵蚀力的空间变化特征。[结果] ①新疆多年平均降雨侵蚀力和降雨量空间格局相似,呈西高东低,中部高南北低的格局。近40 a新疆年降雨侵蚀力总体上处于波动增加趋势,其平均增速为15.6[MJ·mm/(hm2·h·a)]/10 a,但因区域不同而有差异,其倾向率天山北部多呈正值,南部多为负值或持平,且北部高于南部。②降雨侵蚀力最大倾向率多出现在夏季(6—8月),但不同区域四季分配格局不同,北部大部分区域春、夏季较高,南部大部分区域夏、秋季较高,多年平均降雨侵蚀力年内分配呈集中在“春夏”格局,但不同区域集中程度不同,其年内集中程度均为降雨侵蚀力高于降雨量,说明能够产生土壤侵蚀的大降雨事件多出现在5—8月。[结论] 气候和海拔高度是影响降雨侵蚀力格局的关键要素,在气候变化背景下,春夏季的大降水事件对新疆天山山区土壤水力侵蚀不容忽视。
关键词:  降雨侵蚀力  日降雨量  空间变化  新疆维吾尔自治区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.04.001
分类号:S157.1;TV125
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区财政专项“天山北坡典型区水土流失与经济发展关系研究”(213031002)
Spatial Variation of Rainfall Erosivity in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 1981 to 2018
Yilihamu·Yimamu
General Station of Soil and Water Conservation and Ecological Environment Monitoring of Xinjiang, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The spatial variation characteristics of rainfall erosivity in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 1981 to 2018 were analyzed in order to provide a scientific reference for the theoretical study of soil hydraulic erosion, and for the practical work related to soil and water conservation in the region. [Methods] Based on the daily rainfall data of 38 meteorological stations in Xinjiang region from 1981 to 2018, the half-month rainfall erosion algorithm model was used to calculate the rainfall erosivity factor R, which reflected the intrinsic effect of rainfall on soil erosion. The ratios of multi-year average half monthly rainfall erosivity were calculated, and Kriging interpolation method was used to analyze the spatial variation characteristics of rainfall erosion in Xinjiang region. [Results] ① The spatial variation of rainfall erosivity was similar with the spatial variation of precipitation in Xinjiang region, showing a pattern of higher in the west and lower in the east, higher in the middle and lower in the south and north. As a whole, the annual rainfall erosivity showed an increasing trend with a growth rate of 15.6[MJ·mm/(hm2·h·a)]/10 a, although it varied among regions. The trend rate was positive in most areas of the Northern Tianshan while negative or zero in most areas of the Southern Tianshan, and which was higher in the northern part than in the southern part. ② Higher trend rate of rainfall erosivity appeared mostly in summer (from June to August), however the seasonal distribution pattern was different in various regions. The higher tendency rate occurred in spring and summer across most of the north part, meanwhile it occurred in summer and autumn across most of the south part. The distribution of multi-year average rainfall erosivity concentrated in spring and summer, but different in various regions. The distribution of rainfall erosivity was more concentrated than rainfall. These indicated that the erosive rainfall events mostly occurred from May to August. [Conclusion] Climate and altitude are key factors affecting the patterns of rainfall erosivity. In the context of climate change, the heavy rainfall events in spring and summer should not be ignored for soil hydraulic erosion in Tianshan Mountain of Xinjiang region.
Key words:  rainfall erosivity  daily rainfall  spatial variation  Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region