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保水剂与微生物菌肥配施对黄土高原旱作燕麦生长及水分利用的影响
田露, 刘景辉, 赵宝平, 米俊珍, 李英浩, 费楠
内蒙古农业大学/内蒙古农业大学杂粮产业协同创新中心, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010019
摘要:
[目的] 分析保水剂与微生物菌肥配施后旱作燕麦生长及水分利用情况,为黄土高原旱作区农田生产提供一种有效的保水培肥措施,指导该区域旱作农业生产。[方法] 通过在黄土高原旱作区设不施保水剂和微生物菌肥(CK)、单施保水剂(A)、单施微生物菌肥(M)、保水剂和生物菌肥配施(AM)4个处理,分析燕麦全生育时期土壤水分变化、关键生育时期生长发育变化、全生育时期耗水量特征、产量构成及水分利用情况。[结果] ①AM处理可促进燕麦生长发育。以灌浆期为例,AM处理可提高株高3.27%~25.96%,单株叶面积7.94%~23.06%,地上部干物质积累量11.48%~21.88%。②AM处理可提高0—20 cm土层土壤含水量(5.89%~11.50%),显著降低燕麦土壤贮水消耗(7.70%~18.76%),使总耗水量降低0.46%~1.26%。③AM处理可促进燕麦籽粒和生物产量形成,进而促进水分利用,使籽粒产量提高8.40%~20.12%,生物产量提高10.80%~25.09%,水分利用效率提高12.19%~26.80%。[结论] 保水剂和微生物菌肥配施能够显著促进旱作燕麦生长,改善农田土壤水分状况,具有蓄水保墒作用,实现燕麦产量增加,提高水分利用效率。
关键词:  保水剂  微生物菌肥  旱作燕麦  水分利用
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.03.046
分类号:S144;TU582.042.6
基金项目:内蒙古自治区科技计划项目“燕麦加工技术研究与旱作高产栽培示范推广项目”(201802062);内蒙古自治区科技成果转化项目“燕麦新品种与绿色种植技术成果转化与应用”(2019CG017);国家燕麦荞麦产业技术体系项目(CARS-08-B-5);全国农业科研杰出人才及创新团队项目
Effects of Combined Application of Super Absorbent Polymer and Microbial Fertilizer on Oat Growth and Water Utilization in Dry Farmland of Loess Plateau
Tian Lu, Liu Jinghui, Zhao Baoping, Mi Junzhen, Li Yinghao, Fei Nan
Inner Mongolia Agricultural University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Grain Industry of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010019, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The growth and water utilization of dry farmland oats after the combined application of super absorbent polymer and microbial fertilizer were investigated, in order to provide an effective water-retaining and fertilizing measure for the crop production in Inner Mongolia of the Loess Plateau.[Methods] Four treatments, including no application of water retaining agent and microbial fertilizer (CK), single application of water retaining agent (A), single application of microbial fertilizer (M), combination of water retaining agent and microbial fertilizer (AM), were set up in the dryland area of the Loess Plateau, and the changes of soil water content, oat growth conditions, water consumption, yield composition and water use were analyzed.[Results] ① The combined application of super absorbent polymer and microbial fertilizer promoted the growth and development of oats. Taking the filling stage as an example, the plant height was increased by 3.27%-25.96%, the plant leaf-area was increased by 7.94%-23.06%, and the accumulation of aboveground dry matter was increased by 11.48%-21.88%. ② The combined application of super absorbent polymer and microbial fertilizer increased soil water content of 0-20 cm soil layer by 5.89%-11.50%, compared with no application. It significantly decreased soil water storage consumption by 7.70%-18.76% and reduced the total water consumption by 0.46%-1.26%. ③ The combined application of super absorbent polymer and microbial fertilizer promoted the formation of oat grains and biological yield, and thus promoted water use efficiency. The grain yield increased by 8.40%-20.12%, the biological yield increased by 10.80%-25.09%, and water use efficiency increased by 12.19%-26.80%.[Conclusion] The combined application of super absorbent polymer and microbial fertilizer can significantly promote the growth of oats in dryland, improve soil moisture status, conserve soil and water, and thus increase the yield of oats and improve the water use efficiency.
Key words:  super absorbent polymer  microbial fertilizer  oat  water use efficiency