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黄土丘陵沟壑区沟道土地整治工程的排水设计
窦少辉1, 高建恩1,2, 李兴华1,3, 高哲3, 刘思璇1, 周凡凡1
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所 水利部 水土保持生态工程技术研究中心, 陕西 杨凌 712100;3.西北农林科技大学 水利与建筑工程学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的] 针对黄土丘陵沟壑区沟道土地整治工程新造地排水困难而引发的土地不均匀沉降、盐碱化、坝体管涌等灾害问题,探索沟道土地整治工程的排水设计方式,为今后相关领域的排水设计提供参考。[方法] 以陕西省延安市羊圈沟子流域为研究对象,基于小流域暴雨设计标准,结合室内试验结果和相关设计规范,设计一种碎石与盲沟相结合的排水方式,并通过后期原型观测验证工程设计。[结果] ①新造地排水设计3条截面均为1 m×0.5 m,长度分别为60,30,30 m,坡降为6%~10%的地下盲沟。盲沟用粒径50~80 mm的碎石填充,并用无纺土工布包裹,盲沟排水通过挡土坝收集于下游水窖并进行利用;②野外初步监测表明,在次降雨54.2 mm的情况下,对比无工程措施的沟道新造地,碎石盲沟排水工程可分别使新造地土壤含水率和电导率的增幅相对降低46.81%和3.61%。[结论] 碎石盲沟排水设计可有效缓解沟道新造地土壤的蓄水和盐碱化程度,从而提升沟道新造地的风险响应能力。
关键词:  黄土丘陵沟壑区  沟道土地整治  碎石盲沟  排水设计
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.20200628.002
分类号:S157.2
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“黄土丘陵沟壑区边坡工程—沟道整治生态安全调控技术”(2017YFC0504703);国家自然科学基金项目(41877078,41371276);陕西省自然科学基金重大基础项目(2016ZDJC-20);陕西省科技统筹创新工程计划重大项目课题(2013KTDZ03-03-01);中国科学院重要方向项目“水土保持工程关键技术研发与集成示范”(A315021615)。
Drainage Design of Channel Land Consolidation Project in Gully Areas of Loess Hilly Region
Dou Shaohui1, Gao Jianen1,2, Li Xinghua1,3, Gao Zhe3, Liu Sixuan1, Zhou Fanfan1
1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Research Center on Soil&Water Conservation of Ministry of Water Research, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Considering the problems of uneven settlement, salinization, dam piping, and other disasters caused by the difficulty of new land reclamation and drainage in gully areas of loess hilly regions, the drainage design method of a channel land consolidation project was explored to provide reference for drainage design in related fields in the future.[Methods] The Yangjuangou subbasin in Yan'an City, Shaanxi Province, was taken as the study area, based on the design criteria of the stormwater in a small basin. Indoor experimental results were combined with related design specifications. The subsurface drainage method combined gravel and blind ditch, and it was verified by the engineering design through post prototype observation.[Results] ① The new land drainage design had three cross-sectional areas of 1 m×0.5 m, with lengths of 60, 30, and 30 m, and a slope of 6%-10% of the underground blind ditches. The blind ditches were filled with gravel with particle size of 50-80 mm and wrapped with nonwoven geotextile. Blind ditch drainage was collected by the retaining dam in the downstream leeches and was utilized.② Initial monitoring in the field indicated that, in the case of a subrainfall of 54.2 mm, compared with the new land without any engineering measures, the gravel blind ditch drainage project could reduce the increase in soil moisture content and conductivity of new land by 46.81% and 3.61%, respectively.[Conclusion] The drainage design using gravel blind ditch could effectively alleviate the water storage and salinization degree of new land soil in the channel, thereby improving the risk-response capability.
Key words:  loess hilly and gully region  channel land consolidation  crushed blind ditch  drainage design