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东北黑土区的侵蚀沟治理措施与模式
张晟旻1, 李浩2
1.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;2.中国科学院 东北地理与农业生态研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150081
摘要:
[目的] 面向东北黑土区侵蚀沟治理专项国家重大工程的科技需求,总结凝练出东北黑土区侵蚀沟治理措施与模式,为东北黑土区侵蚀沟治理提供技术支撑。[方法] 采用天地一体化现场调查的方法,对不同时期已开展治理的侵蚀沟详查,获得侵蚀沟形态特征参数、影像资料及空间信息;调查侵蚀沟治理模式与措施种类以及实施后的水保效果。[结果] 东北黑土区侵蚀沟治理主要有柳跌水和浆砌石跌水等沟头防护、柳编水道和石笼谷坊等沟底稳固、乔灌混交沟岸防护3大类措施组成;总结已有治沟措施的不足并提出了完善方案;治理模式可归为工程为主植物为辅,植物为主工程为辅,植物和填埋复垦4大类别。[结论] 目前东北黑土区侵蚀沟治理已构建了成熟的治理模式与多样化的治理措施,实施情况总体良好,但仍存在治理模式选择与措施组装的不合理现象,应注意施工质量管控和加强后期管护。
关键词:  黑土区  侵蚀沟  侵蚀治理  东北地区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.03.032
分类号:S157.2
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“东北黑土区侵蚀沟生态修复关键技术研发与集成示范”(2017YFC0504200);国家自然科学基金项目“基于摄影测量的黑土坡面细沟间与细沟侵蚀时空过程研究”(41601289)
Gully Erosion Control Practices and Models in Mollisol Areas of Northeast China
Zhang Shengmin1, Li Hao2
1.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;2.Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, China
Abstract:
[Objective] To determine the technology requirements for an exclusive project of gully erosion control in a mollisol areas of Northeast China, the gully erosion control practices and models were investigated and summarized, in order to provide technical support for gully erosion control in the mollisol areas in Northeast China.[Methods] Sky and Earth integration and on-site investigation methods were used to obtain the morphological characteristic parameters, image data, and spatial information of gullies controlled by different periods. The gully erosion control practices and models and their effects were investigated.[Results] The gully erosion control practices in the mollisol areas of Northeast China were composed of three types:gully head protection, such as willow falling and stone masonry; gully bed stabilization practices, such as willow watercourse and gabion check dams; and arbors and shrubs providing mixed gully bank protection. The limitations of the existing control practices were identified and improved. The models of gully erosion control were divided into four categories:engineering assisted by vegetation, vegetation assisted by engineering, vegetation, and reclamation.[Conclusion] The current control methods of gully erosion in the mollisol areas of Northeast China achieved remarkable effects, forming mature control models and diversified control practices. However, the phenomena of unjustified models and inappropriate practices existed, and construction quality control and conservation after gully erosion control should be emphasized.
Key words:  mollisol areas  gully  erosion control  Northest China