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基于植被重建的宁东矿区煤矸石山立地类型及其特征
杨宇平1,2, 许丽1,2, 丰菲1,2, 郑雯丹1,2, 刘莹1,2
1.内蒙古农业大学 沙漠治理学院, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010011;2.荒漠生态系统保护与修复国家林业局重点实验室, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010018
摘要:
[目的] 研究煤炭开采形成的煤矸石山占压土地并造成的地表植被破坏,正确划分煤矸石山立地类型,为矿区生态恢复与重建提供依据。[方法] 以宁东矿区煤矸石山为研究对象,选取微地形、海拔、覆土厚度、土壤质地等10个立地因子进行调查分析,利用主成分分析和聚类分析等方法,划分煤矸石山立地类型。[结果] 应用主成分分析法确定出主导立地因子为:微地形、覆土厚度、土壤质地;再依据主导因子对研究样地进行聚类分析划分出宁东矿区煤矸石山3个立地类型组,5个立地类型亚组,8个立地类型。煤矸石山平台面积较大,边坡坡度32°~40°之间,覆土厚度多在30 cm以上,土壤田间持水量16.82%~34.85%,全K含量34.29~46.61 g/kg,属于极高水平,全P含量0.31~0.62 g/kg,为中下或低水平,而土壤有机质、全N含量均属于极低水平,煤矸石山土壤偏碱性。[结论] 在宁东矿区煤矸石山重建时应因地制宜,覆土砾石含量较少时,选择以乔木为主的乔灌型混交模式,或以灌木为主的灌木林或灌草型;砾石含量较多时,选择以草本为主的灌草型;土壤为轻砾石土时,撒播草籽。
关键词:  煤矸石山  立地类型  植被重建  宁东矿区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.03.029
分类号:X171.4
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“西北干旱荒漠区煤炭基地生态安全保障技术”(2017YFC0504400),“采煤迹地植被重建与保育技术研究”(2017YFC0504402)
Site Types and Characteristics of Coal Gangue Hill Based on Vegetation Reconstruction in Ningdong Mining Area
Yang Yuping1,2, Xu Li1,2, Feng Fei1,2, Zheng Wendan1,2, Liu Ying1,2
1.College of Desert Cotrol Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010011, China;2.Key Laboratory of Desert Ecosystem Conservation and Restoration, State Forest Administration of China, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The coal gangue mountains, the occupied land, and the surface vegetation destroyed by coal mining were analyzed to classify the types of coal gangue site properly. The objective of the study was to provide a basis for ecological restoration and reconstruction of mining areas.[Methods] The coal gangue in the Ningdong mining area was taken as the research object. Ten site factors were investigated and analyzed for microtopography, altitude, thickness of covering soil, and soil texture. Methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to classify coal gangue mountain site types.[Results] The dominant factors were determined by principal component analysis as microtopography, thickness of covering soil, and soil texture. Afterwards, according to the dominant factors, the coal gangue mountains in the Ningdong mining area were classified into three site type groups, five site type subgroups, and eight site types through cluster analysis for various areas. The coal gangue platform had a large area, with slopes between 32° and 40°, and the thickness of the coal gangue overburden was > 30 cm. The soil field water capacity was between 16.82% and 34.85%, and the total K content was between 34.29 and 46.61 g/kg, which was extremely high. The total P content was between 0.31 and 0.62 g/kg, which was medium to low level. However, soil organic matter and total N content were at very low levels, and the soil of the coal gangue was more alkaline.[Conclusion] The reconstruction of gangue in Ningdong mining area should take measures according to local conditions. When gravel is less in overlaying soil, the arbor-shrub mixed pattern is selected with arbor based, or shrub pattern, or shrub grass pattern with shrub based. Whereas, the shrub grass pattern with grass based is selected when gravel is more. When the soil is light gravel, grass seeds are sown.
Key words:  coal gangue mountain  site type  vegetation reconstruction  Ningdong mining area