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金塔沙漠不同人工植被类型土壤种子库特征
滕玉风, 占玉芳, 马力, 鲁延芳, 钱万建, 田晓萍
张掖市林业科学研究院, 甘肃 张掖 734000
摘要:
[目的] 对甘肃省酒泉市金塔沙漠不同类型人工植被林地的土壤种子库进行调查研究,以揭示干旱条件下沙漠人工植被土壤种子库的分布规律、种子库物种多样性的变化特征以及土壤种子库与地上植被的关系,为河西走廊退化人工林生态系统的恢复与重建提供理论依据。[方法] 通过野外植被调查、土壤种子库取样和土样萌发试验进行分析研究。[结果] ①土壤种子库中,共统计到植物种有24种,胡杨—假苇拂子茅群落、胡杨+沙枣—柽柳+花棒+柠条—芦苇+黑沙蒿群落、梭梭—河西菊群落、柽柳—花花柴群落土壤种子库物种数依次为18种、18种、14种、3种,土壤种子密度依次为660.71,267.85,29.64,19.29粒/m2。土壤种子库中一年生、多年生草本的物种和密度占优势,乔木、灌木和半灌木种子所占比例较低。②物种多样性分析表明,乔木林土壤种子库物种的Margalef丰富度指数大于灌木林,土壤种子库物种的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数变化趋势基本一致,均为胡杨+沙枣—柽柳+花棒+柠条—芦苇+黑沙蒿群落 > 柽柳—花花柴群落 > 梭梭—河西菊群落 > 胡杨—假苇拂子茅群落,而生态优势度指数与之相反。③乔木林土壤种子库植物与地上植被的相似程度高于灌木林。[结论] 沙漠人工植被林地土壤种子库物种丰富度低,以草本植物为主,沙漠自我恢复度低,人工营造乔木林、灌木林有利于干旱荒漠区生态恢复与重建。
关键词:  金塔沙漠  土壤种子库  人工植被
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.03.023
分类号:S728.4;S71
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“河西走廊人工沙漠植被土壤种子库的结构与萌发策略研究”(31560240)
Characteristics of Soil Seed Bank of Artificial Vegetation Types in Jinta Desert
Teng Yufeng, Zhan Yufang, Ma Li, Lu Yanfang, Qian Wanjian, Tian Xiaoping
Zhangye Academy of Forestry, Zhangye, Gansu 734000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Soil seed banks of different types of artificial forest land were studied in the Jinta desert of Jiuquan City, Gansu Province, to reveal the artificial vegetation distribution rule of soil seed banks, variety characteristics of species diversity, and relationship between the soil seed bank and the vegetation. The goal was to provide a theoretical basis for the restoration and reconstruction of the degraded plantation ecosystem in the Hexi corridor.[Methods] The analytical research was conducted through field vegetation survey, soil seed bank sampling, and soil germination experiment.[Results] ① There were 24 kinds of plants species. The numbers of soil seed banks of the Populus euphratica-Calamagrostis pseudophragmites community, the P. euphratica + Elaeagnus angustifolia-Tamarix chinensis + Hedysarum scoparium + Caragana korshinskii-Phragmites australis + Artemisia ordosica community, the Haloxylon ammodendron-Hexinia polydichotoma community, and the Tamarix chinensis-Karelinia caspia community were 18, 18, 14, and 3 species, respectively. The seed densities were 660.71, 267.85, 29.64, and 19.29 granules/m2, respectively. The species and density of annual and perennial herbs were dominant, and the proportion of arbor, shrubs, and subshrubs was low. ② The analysis of species diversity showed that the Margalef richness index of soil seed banks of arboreal forest was larger than that of the shrubs. The variety trends of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson diversity index, and Pielou evenness index of soil seed banks were almost the same as P. euphratica + E. angustifolia-T. chinensis + H. scoparium + C. korshinskii-P. australis + A. ordosica community > T. chinensis -K. caspia community > H. ammodendron -H. polydichotoma community > P. euphratica-C. pseudophragmites community. However, the ecological dominance index was in contrast. ③ The similarity in the arbor soil seed banks of arboreal forest and ground vegetation was higher than that of the shrubs.[Conclusion] The species abundance of the soil seed bank was low in artificial forest lands. Majority of them were herbs, the desert had a low restoration capacity, and the artificial arbor forests and shrubs were beneficial for the restoration and reconstruction of the arid desert area.
Key words:  Jinta desert  soil seed bank  artificial vegetation