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油污胁迫下土壤微生物群落结构对外源施用玉米秸秆生物质炭的响应
王金成1,2,3, 井明博1,2, 张绍鹏4, 周天林1,2, 刘光琇3, 陈拓3, 吴胜伟5
1.陇东学院 生命科学与技术学院, 甘肃 庆阳 745000;2.甘肃省高校陇东生物资源保护与利用省级重点实验室, 甘肃 庆阳 745000;3.甘肃省极端环境微生物资源与工程重点实验室 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院, 甘肃 兰州 730000;4.中国石油天然气股份有限公司长庆油田分公司第十一采油厂, 甘肃 庆阳 745000;5.西安环发生物科技有限公司, 陕西 西安 710068
摘要:
[目的] 分析外源施用玉米秸秆生物质炭对石油污染土壤酶活性和微生物群落结构的影响方式,旨在为黄土高原陇东地区油污土壤生态修复提供新的土壤调理剂。[方法] 对轻度(5%)和重度(20%)油污土壤分别实施了玉米秸秆生物炭(B)、金盏菊(J)和金盏菊+玉米秸秆生物炭(JB)3种处理方式,采用常规方法测定了不同处理组间土壤总石油烃(TPH)去除率、酶活性和土壤微生物群落结构。[结果] ①轻度污染时土壤总石油烃(TPH)去除率为JB5(61.95±1.39%)最高,重度污染时为JB20(56.44±1.89%)最高(p<0.05);②外源施用玉米秸秆生物质炭能有效增加轻重两种油污浓度的土壤脱氢酶和多酚氧化酶活性;③油污浓度由5%增至20%,两种生物质炭参与的处理组(JB20和B20)土壤微生物群落结构组成差异相对较小(p<0.05);④非度量多维尺度(NMDS)分析结果显示,土壤脱氢酶、多酚氧化酶、Chao1指数和Shannon指数是驱动J5,B5,B20,JB5和JB20处理组土壤微生物群落结构分异于CK5,CK20和J20处理组的主要环境因子。[结论] 轻重两种油污浓度胁迫时外源施用玉米秸秆生物质炭可显著增加土壤脱氢酶和多酚氧化酶活性,驱动土壤微生物群落结构变化,从而提高了土壤TPH去除率,因此陇东黄土高原地区油污土壤场地生态修复时可选用玉米秸秆生物质炭作为土壤调理剂。
关键词:  油污土壤  金盏菊  油污浓度  生物质炭  微生物群落结构
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.03.010
分类号:S154.3;X53
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“陇东黄土高原植物微生物组合联合修复石油污染土壤降解机制研究”(31860148);科技部国家国际合作专项“青藏高原冻土中原油降解微生物的筛选及耐冷工程菌构建”(2014DFA30330);陇东学院博士基金项目(XYBY1909);甘肃省青年科技基金计划项目(17JR5RM354);甘肃省极端环境微生物资源与工程重点实验室开放基金(EEMRE201601)。
Response of Soil Microbial Community Structure to Application of Corn Straw Biochar Under Crude-Oil Pollution Concentration Stress
Wang Jincheng1,2,3, Jing Mingbo1,2, Zhang Shaopeng4, Zhou Tianlin1,2, Liu Guangxiu3, Chen Tuo3, Wu Shengwei5
1.College of Life Science and Technology, Longdong University, Qingyang, Gansu 745000, China;2.University Provincial Key Laboratory for Protection and Utilization of Longdong Bio-resources in Gansu Province, Qingyang, Gansu 745000, China;3.Key Laboratory of Extreme Environmental Microbial Resources and Engineering of Gansu Province, Northwest Institute of ECO-environment and Resource, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China;4.The 11 th Oil Production Plant of PCOC, Qingyang, Gansu 745000, China;5.Xi'an H&F Environment Protection Engineering Company Limited, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710068, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of exogenous application of corn straw biochar on the soil enzyme activity and microbial community structure were studied to provide soil conditioner for ecological restoration of crude-oil-contaminated soil in Longdong area of the Loess Plateau.[Methods] Three treatments, namely corn straw biochar treatment (B), Calendula officinalis treatment (J), and Calendula officinalis plus corn straw biochar treatment (JB) were applied to the low-concentration (5%) and high-concentration (20%) crude-oil-polluted soil. The change of the soil total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal rate, the soil enzyme activity, and the soil microbial community structure was investigated by the conventional method.[Results] ① The maximum soil TPH removal rates for the low-pollution-concentration group (TPH=5%) were observed in JB5 treatment (61.95%±1.39%), whereas the JB20 treatment (56.44%±1.89%) demonstrated the maximum soil TPH removal rate, in the high-pollution-concentration (TPH=20%) group (p<0.05). ② Soil dehydrogenase and polyphenol oxidase activity significantly improved after the application of corn straw biochar. ③ When the crude-oil concentration increased from 5% to 20%, the difference in soil microbial community structure between JB20 and B20 treatments was relatively small. ④ Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that the difference in soil microbial community structure between the treatments of J5, B5, B20, JB5, and JB20 and the treatments of CK5, CK20, and J20 was caused by the changes of soil dehydrogenase activity, soil polyphenol oxidase activity, Chao1 index, and Shannon-Wiener index of the soil microbial community.[Conclusion] Application of corn straw biochar to crude-oil-polluted soil with low and high concentrations significantly improved the soil dehydrogenase and polyphenol oxidase activity, causing changes in the soil microbial community structure. Consequently, the soil TPH removal rate improved. Therefore, corn straw biochar can be used as a soil conditioner for ecological restoration of crude-oil-contaminated soil in Longdong area of the Loess Plateau.
Key words:  crude-oil-contaminated soil  Calendula officinalis  pollutant concentration  biochar  microbial community structure