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灌区土壤盐分空间变异及多因素响应关系
谷晓伟, 韩金旭, 张凤燃, 张丹, 刘姝芳
黄河水利委员会 黄河水利科学研究院, 河南 郑州 450003
摘要:
[目的] 研究土壤含盐量空间特征和分布格局,分析土壤盐分空间格局与地下水、土壤物理特性参数间的空间响应关系,为灌区盐渍化防控提供理论依据。[方法] 以黄河南岸灌区吉格斯太灌域为例,网格化布点,分层采样测定土壤含盐量、表层土壤含水量、颗粒组成、干容重并换算热容量及导热率,同步监测地下水埋深及含盐量,采用经典统计方法和地统计方法分析土壤含盐量空间分布特征及其与物理特性和地下水等因素间的空间相关性。[结果] 灌域处于非盐化-轻度盐化状态,土壤含盐量呈中等空间变异程度,总体呈现相对独立的随机分布,空间结构特征可以用高斯模型和指数模型描述。土壤含盐量与地下水埋深呈显著负相关,与地下水含盐量呈显著正相关,地下水埋深<1.6 m区域发生轻度盐渍化风险较高。0-20 cm土壤含盐量与黏粒含量、容重、含水量、导热率及热容量显著空间正相关,相关范围约2~6 km;与砂粒含量呈显著空间负相关,相关范围约2~4 km。20-60 cm土壤盐分与0-20 cm土壤黏粒、砂粒含量、导热率、热容量及含水量呈显著相关,相关范围与土壤表层略有差异。[结论] 黏粒含量较高,含水率较大,地下水埋深<1.6 m的区域是灌域盐渍化防控的重点区域。
关键词:  土壤盐分  空间变异  地下水  物理特性  空间响应
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.02.014
分类号:S152.8
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目"黄土高原区降雨径流挖潜与高效利用研究示范"(2017YFC0403604);国家重点研发计划项目课题"京津冀多水源多目标协同配置与安全保障方案"(2016YFC0401407);中央科研院所基本科研业务费专项"鄂尔多斯水权转换对土壤盐分运移规律影响"(HKY-JBYW-2017-13)
Spatial Variability of Soil Salinity and Its Multi Factor Response in Irrigation Area
Gu Xiaowei, Han Jinxu, Zhang Fengran, Zhang Dan, Liu Shufang
Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, YRCC, Zhengzhou, He'nan 450003, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The spatial characteristics and distribution pattern of soil salt in irrigation area was studied, in order to analyze the relationship between the spatial pattern of soil salt and groundwater, soil physical parameters.[Methods] Jigesitai sub-district in the south bank irrigation area of the Yellow River was taken as an example. The soil samples in 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm layers were collected. The soil salt content, soil volume water content at 0-20 cm layer, particle composition, dry bulk density were measured, soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity were converted, and groundwater depth and salt content were monitored simultaneously. The spatial distribution characteristics of salt content and its spatial correlation were analyzed by classical statistical method and geostatistical method.[Results] The irrigation area was in the state of non-mild salinization. The soil salt showed a middle degree spatial variation and relatively independent random distribution. Spatial structure characteristics were fitted by Gaussian and exponential model. Soil salt was negatively correlated with groundwater depth, and positively correlated with groundwater salt content. The area with groundwater depth less than 1.6 m had a higher probability of slightly salinization. The soil salt at 0-20 cm layer was positively correlated with clay content, soil bulk density, moisture content, thermal conductivity and heat capacity in spatial range of 2~6 km, and negatively correlated with sand content in spatial range of 2~4 km. The soil salt at 20-60 cm layer was significantly related to clay content, sand content, thermal conductivity, heat capacity and water content of 0-20 cm soil layer, and the correlation range was slightly different from that of the soil surface.[Conclusion] The area with high clay content, high water content and groundwater depth less than 1.6 m is the key area of soil salinization control in the irrigation area.
Key words:  soil salt  spatial variation  ground water  physical characteristics  spatial response relationship