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台风“利奇马”暴雨引发的土壤侵蚀调查研究——以山东省临朐县为例
从辰宇1, 韩剑桥1,2, 焦菊英1,2, 冯伟3, 马春玲1, 谢梦霞1, 刘元昊1, 黑哲2,4, 戈文艳1,2, 李连胜5, 王国振2,3, 王飞1,2
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;3.水利部 水土保持监测中心, 北京 100000;4.中国科学院大学, 北京 100000;5.潍坊市水文局, 山东 潍坊 261000
摘要:
[目的] 实地调查极端降雨事件下的土壤侵蚀特征,探寻水土流失治理中存在的问题,为人类应对极端天气灾害提供科学依据。[方法] 以受2019年8月9号台风"利奇马"暴雨影响较大的山东省临朐县为调查区域,采用资料分析与野外调查相结合的方法,分析曾家沟、耿家沟典型小流域的坡面侵蚀、道路侵蚀及弥河上游各级河道的冲淤情况。[结果] "利奇马"台风过境期间,暴雨中心的雨量站降雨量达到50 a一遇标准;林草地、撂荒地基本无细沟侵蚀发生,坡耕地细沟侵蚀模数为4 560~19 500 t/km2,梯田田面上细沟集中于承接上方汇水的位置;受植被保护或石坎梯田的田坎完好,而其他类型田坎滑塌严重。调查样地滑塌侵蚀模数301~36 321 t/km2,田坎滑塌最为严重;河岸尤其是弯顶处冲刷严重,河道回流区、两河交汇处、拦河坝以及桥梁上游等淤积量较大。[结论] 小流域的水土保持措施可减少暴雨造成的土壤侵蚀量。建议针对不同部位和利用类型的土地设计修建适宜的蓄排水和保土措施,并加强对农民的水土保持型农艺培训,提升极端暴雨下的水土流失防灾减灾能力。
关键词:  “利奇马”台风  暴雨  山东省临朐县  土壤侵蚀  水土保持措施
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.05.047
分类号:S157
基金项目:国家重点研发课题“生态治理与生态文明建设生态技术筛选、配置与试验示范”(2016YFC0503705);国家自然科学基金面上项目“次降雨特征与植被变化对半干旱黄土区土壤水分补充的协同影响”(41771558);国家自然科学基金青年项目“黄土坡面细沟演化的有效侵蚀力解析及作用机制研究”(41807067);陕西省水利水保科技项目“秦巴山地坡面近自然水土保持关键技术集成与示范”(2017sbkj-01)
Investigation on Soil Erosion from Typhoon Lekima Rainstorm -A Case Study in Linqu County, Shandong Province
Cong Chenyu1, Han Jianqiao1,2, Jiao Juying1,2, Feng Wei3, Ma Chunling1, Xie Mengxia1, Liu Yuanhao1, Hei Zhe2,4, Ge Wenyan1,2, Li Liansheng5, Wang Guozhen2,3, Wang Fei1,2
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.Monitoring Center of Soil and Water Conservation, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100055, China;4.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100000, China;5.Weifang Hydrographic Bureau, Weifang, Shandong 261000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] We aimed to investigate the characteristics of soil erosion in extreme rainfall events to explore the problems related to soil erosion control, and provide the scientific basis for human beings to cope with extreme weather disasters.[Methods] Linqu County, Shandong Province, which was greatly affected by Typhoon Lekima on August 9, 2019, was chosen as the investigation area. By means of data analysis and field investigation, the slope erosion and road erosion characteristics of typical small watersheds in Zengjiagou and Gengjiagou were analyzed, as well as the scouring and silting of various river courses in the upper reaches of the Mihe River.[Results] During the crossing of Typhoon Lekima, the rainfall at the center of the rainstorm reached the 50-year recurrence interval. There was no rill erosion in the forest, grassland and abandoned farmlands, but this did occur in the sloped farmland. The erosion modulus was 4 560~19 500 t/km2, and the rills on the terraced fields were concentrated in the position where the catchment above was carried out; the ridges of terraced fields protected by vegetation or stone ridges were intact, while the other types of ridges showed serious collapse. The landslide erosion modulus of the surveyed land was 301~36 321 t/km2, and the collapse of ridges was the most serious. The riverbanks, especially at the top of the bend, were severely scoured, and the sediment amount was larger in the river return area, the junction of the two rivers, the barrage, and upstream of the bridge.[Conclusion] Soil and water conservation measures in small watersheds can reduce the soil erosion caused by rainstorms. It is suggested to design and construct suitable water storage and drainage, as well as soil conservation measures for different areas and used land. It may also be helpful to strengthen farmers' agronomic training of soil and water conservation, which could have positive effects on preventing soil erosion disasters caused by heavy rain.
Key words:  Typhoon Lekima  heavy rain  Linqu County, Shandong Province  soil erosion  soil and water conservation measures