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杨树低效林下土壤粒径分布与分形特征
童春元1, 李钢铁1, 卢立娜2, 刘朝霞2, 张晓娟2, 张玉龙3
1.内蒙古农业大学 沙漠治理学院, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010018;2.鄂尔多斯市林业治沙科学研究院, 内蒙古 鄂尔多斯 017000;3.鄂尔多斯市林业工作站, 内蒙古 鄂尔多斯 017000
摘要:
[目的] 研究鄂尔多斯地区杨树低效林下土壤粒径分布与分形特征,为该地区杨树低效林的成因分析及改造提供基础依据,并为杨树人工林的科学管理提供参考与决策支持。[方法] 使用Mastersizer3000激光衍射粒度分析仪测量土壤粒径,采用土壤颗粒体积分形维数模型计算分形维数D值,并测定土壤养分。[结果] ①鄂尔多斯地区杨树低效林下土壤颗粒组成主要以细砂粒(42.33%)、极细砂粒(15.72%)、中砂粒(19.77%)为主;主要土壤质地类型为砂土;土壤颗粒的分形维数D值在1.222 5~2.204 5范围内,处于较低水平。②土壤颗粒分形维数D值与粉粒、极细砂粒、细砂粒含量呈显著正相关关系,与中砂粒、粗砂粒、极粗砂粒呈显著负相关关系。③随着土层加深,粒径<250 μm的土壤颗粒含量增加,粒径>250μm的土壤颗粒含量减少;土壤颗粒分形维数D值随土层加深而增大,增大幅度不大。④土壤颗粒分形维数D值与土壤有机质、全氮、速效氮、速效磷含量的关系均未达到显著水平,土壤各养分含量的变化对分形维数D值没有显著影响。[结论] 鄂尔多斯地区杨树低效林下土壤颗粒组成以砂粒为主,土壤分形维数较低,土壤结构极不均匀,这样的土壤结构对杨树的正常生长发育极为不利,不良的土壤结构也在一定程度上导致了低效林的形成,因此在对杨树低效林进行预防和改造时也要改善林下土壤结构。
关键词:  低效林  土壤粒径分布  分形维数  土壤养分
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.05.044
分类号:S152.3
基金项目:林业公益性行业科研专项“浑善达克沙地疏林型植被建设技术研究”(201504412);国家自然科学基金项目“山杏油脂特性地理变异对环境因子的响应及其适应性评价”(31260202)。
Distribution of Soil Size and Fractal Characteristics Under Low-Efficiency Poplar Forests
Tong Chunyuan1, Li Gangtie1, Lu Lina2, Liu Zhaoxia2, Zhang Xiaojuan2, Zhang Yulong3
1.College of Desert Control Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China;2.Ordos Forestry and Destert Control Research Institute, Ordos, Inner Mongolia 017000, China;3.Ordos Forestry Workstation, Ordos, Inner Mongolia 017000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The particle size distribution and fractal characteristics of soil under low-efficiency poplar forests in Ordos region were studied to provide a basis for the cause analysis and transformation of low-efficiency poplar forests in this region, and to provide a reference and decision-making support for the scientific management of poplar plantations.[Methods] We used a Mastersizer 3000 laser diffraction particle size analyzer to measure soil particle size, and a fractal dimension model of soil particle volume to calculate the fractal dimension D, and measured soil nutrients.[Results] ① The main components of soil particles in the low-efficiency poplar forests were fine sand (42.33%), ultra-fine sand (15.72%), and medium sand (19.77%). The main soil texture type was sand and the fractal dimension D of the soil particles was in the range of 1.222 5~2.204 5, which was at a low level. ② The fractal dimension D of soil particles was positively correlated with the silt, ultra-fine sand, and fine sand content, but was negatively correlated with the medium sand, coarse sand, and ultra-coarse sand content. ③ With an increase of the soil layer, the soil particle content with particle size <250 microns increased, whereas the soil particle content with particle size >250 microns decreased. The fractal dimension D value of soil particles increased with an increase of the soil layer; however, the increase was not significant. ④ The relationship among the fractal dimension D of soil particles and the soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus content was not significant, and the change of soil nutrient content had no significant effect on fractal dimension D.[Conclusion] Sand is the main component of soil particles in low-efficiency poplar forests in the Ordos area. The fractal dimension of the soil is low and the soil structure is very uneven. This type of soil structure is very harmful to the normal growth and development of poplar. This poor soil structure leads to the formation of low-efficiency poplar forests to a certain extent. The soil structure under the forest could be improved by prevention and transformation.
Key words:  low-efficiency forests  soil particle size distribution  fractal dimension  soil nutrient