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重庆市森林的滞尘效应及净化大气功能
唐茜
重庆人文科技学院, 重庆 401524
摘要:
[目的] 研究和比较重庆市主要森林(阔叶混交林、针阔混交林、柏木林、针叶混交林和落叶松林)的滞尘效应和净化大气功能,为重庆市森林生态系统的保护和预警提供科学依据。[方法] 针对重庆市主要森林类型所提供的负离子、滞尘、吸收和转化的大气污染物,开展连续3 a的动态监测。[结果] 重庆市不同森林滞尘能力差异显著(p<0.05),年平均滞尘量基本表现为:阔叶混交林 > 针阔混交林 > 柏木林 > 针叶混交林 > 落叶松林;叶面尘中滞留的颗粒物中大多数是TSP(总悬浮微粒),同时不同林分对PM10和PM2.5均有一定量的吸收,降尘物中PM2.5,PM10和TSP相对含量均以阔叶混交林最高;不同林分降尘粒径主要分布在2.5~100 μm,叶面降尘中颗粒物粒径集中分布在100 μm以下(占99%以上);不同林分负氧离子和正氧离子数均表现为:阔叶混交林 > 落叶松林 > 针阔混交林 > 针叶混交林 > 柏木林。不同林分滞尘价值量、吸收SO2价值量、吸收HF价值量和吸收NOx价值量依次表现为:阔叶混交林 > 落叶松林 > 针阔混交林 > 针叶混交林 > 柏木林。[结论] 重庆市阔叶混交林粉尘污染状况较为严重,但同时阔叶混交林具有较高的净化大气功能。
关键词:  重庆市  森林  滞尘效应  净化大气
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.05.043
分类号:Q948.11;S718.55
基金项目:重庆市高等教育学会高等教育科学研究项目“基于特色小镇建设促进高校双创人才培养研究”(CQGJ17129B2);重庆市教育委员会人文社会科学研究项目“基于文脉传承的重庆古村镇文化景观保护研究:以重庆北碚金刚碑古镇为例”(17SKG235)
Dust Retention and Air Purification Capacities of Different Forest Types in Chongqing City
Tang Qian
Chongqing College of Humanities, Science and Technology, Chongqing 401524, China
Abstract:
[Objective] We studied the dust retention capacity and air purification abilities of different forests (mixed broad-leaved forest, mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest, mixed cypress forest, mixed coniferous forest and deciduous pine forest) in Chongqing City, which provides scientific basis for the protection and early warning about destruction of forest ecosystems in Chongqing City.[Methods] Spatial and temporal monitoring were carried out on the main forest types, which indicated that the forests providing negative oxygen ions, dust retention, and absorption and transformation of air pollutants in Chongqing City.[Results] The dust retention capacity of these forests was significantly (p<0.05) more than non-forested areas, and the average dust catching quantity was in order of mixed broad-leaved forest > mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest > mixed cypress forest > mixed coniferous forest > deciduous pine forest. The foliar dust retention of particles in most was total suspended particulate (TSP), while PM10 and PM2.5 had a certain amount of adsorption. The dust relative content of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in mixed broad-leaved forest was the greatest. The dust particle size adsorbed by different green plants ranged from 2.5 to 100 μm, most concentrated under 100 μm (more than 99%). The number of negative oxygen ions and positive oxygen ions produced was highest in the mixed broad-leaved forest > deciduous pine forest > mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest > mixed coniferous forest > mixed cypress forest, and the value of dust retention, SO2, HF and NOx absorption was the greatest in the mixed broad-leaved forest > deciduous pine forest > mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest > mixed coniferous forest > mixed cypress forest.[Conclusion] The dust pollution in the mixed broad-leaved forest in Chongqing City is serious, but at the same time,the mixed broad-leaved forest had a strong air purification capacity.
Key words:  Chongqing City  forest  dust retention capacity  purify air