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荒漠草原不同植被恢复模式的水土保持生态效益
荣浩1, 何京丽1, 张欣1, 张林2, 杨红艳2
1.水利部 牧区水利科学研究所, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010020;2.内蒙古蒙草生态环境(集团)股份有限公司, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010010
摘要:
[目的] 以内蒙古四子王旗境内退化荒漠草原为研究区域,研究不同植被恢复模式对植物群落组成、土壤含水量、土壤侵蚀的影响,为退化草原水土流失治理和草原生态建设提供理论依据。[方法] 针对退化草原特点、水土流失特征,分析不同植被恢复模式下植物群落特征、土壤水分、地表径流和侵蚀量的变化,运用主成分分析对不同植被恢复模式的水土保持生态效益进行评价。[结果] 退化荒漠草原的3种植被恢复模式试验样地的植物种类组成、群落总盖度、地上生物量均高于放牧天然草地,"围栏封育+灌木条带+施肥复壮"、"围栏封育+松土补播+草种包衣"2种植被恢复模式的地上生物量与放牧天然草地之间变化差异达到显著水平(p<0.05);3种植被恢复模式的实施有效控制了土壤侵蚀,径流量和土壤侵蚀量均低于天然草地。[结论] "围栏封育+松土补播+草种包衣"植被恢复模式在保持水土资源,增加群落稳定性等方面的生态效益最好。
关键词:  荒漠草原  恢复模式  水土保持  生态效益  主成分分析
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.05.042
分类号:S157.2;S812.2
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“荒漠化退化草地治理技术及示范”(2016YFC0500500);内蒙古自治区科技重大专项项目“重点区域荒漠化过程与生态修复研究示范”(zdzx2018058)。
Ecological Benefits of Soil and Water Conservation in Different Vegetation Restoration Patterns on Desert Steppe
Rong Hao1, He Jingli1, Zhang Xin1, Zhang Lin2, Yang Hongyan2
1.Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Area, Ministry of Water Resources of China, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010020, China;2.Inner Mongolia Hotision Monsod Drought-resistance Greening Co., Ltd, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010010, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The objective of this study was to provide a theoretical basis for soil erosion control and ecological reconstruction of degraded grasslands, by studying the effects of different vegetation restoration modes on plant community composition, soil moisture content and soil erosion in the degraded desert steppe of Siziwang Banner, Inner Mongolia.[Methods] The characteristics of degraded grassland and soil erosion were used to analyze changes in the plant community, soil moisture, surface runoff and erosion under different vegetation restoration modes. The principal component analysis was used to evaluate the ecological benefits of soil and water conservation based on different vegetation restoration models.[Results] The plant species, total community coverage and aboveground biomass of the three vegetation restoration modes experimental plots in degraded desert steppe were higher than those in grazing natural grassland. The difference in above-ground biomass amounts between the two vegetation restoration modes of "enclosure+ shrub strip + fertilization for rejuvenation" and "enclosure+ loosening soil for re-sowing + grass seed coating" and the grazing natural grassland reached a significant level (p<0.05); The implementation of these three vegetation restoration models effectively controlled soil erosion, making runoff and soil erosion less than that occurring in natural grassland.[Conclusion] The vegetation restoration model of "enclosure+ loosening soil for re-sowing + grass seed coating" has the best ecological benefits for conserving water and soil resources and increasing the stability of communities.
Key words:  desert steppe  restoration pattern  soil and water conservation  ecological benefit  principal component analysis