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银川市阅海湖水环境容量评估
郭琦1, 尹娟1, 邱小琮2, 李世龙1, 雷兴碧1
1.宁夏大学 土木与水利工程学院, 宁夏 银川 750021;2.宁夏大学 生命科学学院, 宁夏 银川 750021
摘要:
[目的] 探明银川市阅海湖水环境容量及其变化趋势,为阅海湖水体污染防治及管理提供依据。[方法] 分别于2015至2017年冬(1月)、春(4月)、夏(7月)、秋(10月)对阅海湖进行水样采集,设置3类水质目标情景,采用已有模型评估阅海湖2015至2017年在不同水质目标情景下高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)、化学需氧量(CODcr)、五日生化需氧量(BOD5)、总氮(TN)、氨氮(NH3-N)、总磷(TP)的最大环境容量。[结果] 水质目标为Ⅱ类时,BOD5,NH3-N有剩余环境容量,CODcr需消减122.4%,142.7%,169.6%;CODMn需消减190.7%,243.8%,248.6%,TN需消减47.3%,40.5%,47.1%;TP需消减67.6%,71.9%,71.0%;水质目标为Ⅲ类时,BOD5,NH3-N,TN有剩余环境容量,CODcr需消减0%,4.4%,40.3%;CODMn需消减7.3%,85.7%,94.1%;TP需消减35.0%,42.6%,41.8%;水质目标为Ⅳ类时,各项指标均达到水质标准且剩余环境容量呈减小趋势,其中TP浓度接近Ⅳ类水质标准限值,是阅海湖最主要污染因子。[结论] 2015至2017年阅海湖水质总体为地表水Ⅳ类,各项指标均有剩余环境容量,水质呈逐年恶化趋势。
关键词:  阅海湖  水环境容量  水质目标  模型评估
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.05.041
分类号:X171.1
基金项目:宁夏高等学校一流学科建设(水利工程)资助项目“宁夏引黄灌区河湖湿地水环境承载力及其生态模型研究”(NXYLXK2017A03)。
Water Environmental Capacity Assessment of Yuehai Lake in Yinchuan City
Guo Qi1, Yin Juan1, Qiu Xiaocong2, Li Shilong1, Lei Xingbi1
1.School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China;2.School of Life Science, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China
Abstract:
[Objective] This study aimed at ascertaining the water environmental capacity and its changing trends to provide basis for prevention and control of water pollution in Yuehai Lake.[Methods] Water samples were collected in winter (January), spring (April), summer (July) and autumn (October) from 2015 to 2017, respectively. Three water quality control target (WQCT) scenarios were set, and existing models were used to evaluate the permanganate index (CODMn), chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP) of Yuehai Lake from 2015 to 2017.[Results] For WQCTs set at level Ⅱ, BOD5 and NH3-N have residual environmental capacity, CODCr needed to be reduced by 122.4%, 142.7%, and 169.6%, CODMn needed to be reduced by 190.7%, 243.8%, and 248.6%, TN needed to be reduced by 47.3%, 40.5%, and 47.1%, and TP needed to be reduced by 67.6%, 71.9%, and 71.0%. If the WQCTs were set at level Ⅲ, BOD5, NH3-N, and TN have residual environmental capacity, CODCr needed to be reduced by 0%, 4.4%, and 40.3%; CODMn needed to be reduced by 7.3%, 85.7%, and 94.1%; and TP needed to be reduced by 35.0%, 42.6%, and 41.8%. If the WQCTs were set at level Ⅳ, all the indicators meet the water quality standard. The surplus environmental capacity showed a trend of decrease over time. The concentration of TP, which was the chief pollutant in the Yuehai Lake, was currently at the level Ⅳ WQCT value.[Conclusion] The water quality of Yuehai Lake from 2015 to 2017 is currently classified as class Ⅳ surface water; certain indicators have a residual environmental capacity based on the WQCT scenarios, and there is a trend of water quality deterioration over time.
Key words:  Yuehai Lake  water environmental capacity  water quality standards  model assessment