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石漠化的生态治理技术与治理模式发展
王爱娟1, 穆洪晓2
1.水利部 水土保持监测中心 北京 100055;2.北京林业大学 水土保持学院, 北京 100083
摘要:
[目的] 石漠化是制约中国西南岩溶区经济社会发展的首要生态环境问题。总结石漠化生态治理现状和特点,旨在为制定更为合理的石漠化防治策略提供参考。[方法] 通过查阅文献资料等,系统总结了中国石漠化治理历程和发展阶段,以及目前中国石漠化治理的单项生态技术和综合治理模式。[结果] 中国石漠化治理技术有工程技术7类26种,生物技术4类15种,耕作技术3类14种和其他技术,包括林草植被恢复模式、生态农业模式、生态畜牧业模式、水土保持模式、生态移民模式、生态旅游模式、综合治理模式和其他治理模式等8类生态治理模式。[结论] 生态技术受经济社会发展水平和治理目标影响,其适宜性因时而变。当前中国的石漠化治理应从减小人口压力,优化土地利用结构,充分发挥生态自我修复能力等方面入手。
关键词:  石漠化  生态技术  治理模式  适应性
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.05.040
分类号:S157
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“生态治理与生态文明建设生态技术筛选、配置与试验与示范”(2016YFC0503705),全国水土流失动态监测项目(126216229000150001)
Development of Ecological Rehabilitation Technology and Model of Rocky Desertification Area
Wang Aijuan1, Mu Hongxiao2
1.Center of Soil and Water Conservation Monitoring, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100055, China;2.School of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Rocky desertification is an most important environmental problem that restricts the economic and social development of the karst area in Southwest China. The status and characteristics of ecological management of rocky desertification were summarized in order to provide references for formulating a more reasonable strategy for prevention and control of rocky desertification.[Methods] Through reviewing the literature reports and documents and books, the history and developmental stage of rock desertification rehabilitation measures in China were systematically summarized, and individual ecological measures and comprehensive rehabilitation models in use at present were listed.[Results] The measures of stony desertification management in China include 26 types in 7 classes of engineering technologies, 15 types in 4 classed of biotechnologies, 14 types in 3 classes of farming techniques, and other technologies as ecological migration. The types of comprehensive ecological rehabilitation mode include vegetation restoration, ecological agriculture, eco-livestock farming, soil and water conservation, eco-immigration, eco-tourism, integrated management, and others.[Conclusion] The suitability of ecological measures depends on the level of social and economic development and the purpose of management, its suitability varies over time. At present, control of rock desertification in China should begin with releasing population pressure, optimizing land use structure, and maximizing natural self-repair ability.
Key words:  rock desertification  ecological technology  rehabilitation model  suitability