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废弃铅锌矿区复耕后土壤-作物重金属污染特征及修复措施
沈乾杰1, 刘品桢2, 杜启露1, 刘晓媛1, 吴迪1
1.贵州师范大学 山地与环境国家重点实验室, 贵州 贵阳 550001;2.黔南民族师范学院 化学化工学院, 贵州 都匀 558000
摘要:
[目的] 了解废弃铅锌矿区复耕农田耕作层土壤-作物污染特征及变化情况,探究最合理的植物修复系统。[方法] 利用基于GIS的Tominson负荷指数法对不同耕地重金属污染分布格局及来源进行分析;采用富集系数法(BCF),复合质量影响指数法(ⅡCQ)探究土壤-作物污染特征。[结果] 研究区耕作层土壤中Cd,Zn,Pb,Hg含量分别是贵州省背景值的100,45,18,18倍,Cu,As,Cr与背景值基本相同;蒟蒻种植地为重度污染。茎块类作物食用部分富集重金属能力最强,稻米次之,瓜类作物最弱,当地瓜类作物可做为抗富集重金属的先行植物。[结论] Cd为主要控制因子,蒟蒻种植地为主要控制区域;根据研究区重金属空间分布特征,重度污染区域建议采用超富集植物修复及活化剂共同作用;中度污染区域种植抗富集蔬菜及阻绝污染源的方式;轻度污染区域稻米种植区采用钝化措施,从而达到修复耕作层土壤重金属目的。
关键词:  废弃矿区  复耕土壤  土壤—农作物系统  修复措施  重金属污染
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.05.031
分类号:X53
基金项目:贵州省科技计划项目“基于碳酸钙剂量对黔产红托竹荪富集重金属及产质的机制”(黔科合LH[2016]7204)
Characteristics and Restoration Measures for Heavy-Metal Polluted Soil-Crop Systems After Recultivation in Abandoned Lead and Zinc Mining Areas
Shen Qianjie1, Liu Pinzhen2, Du Qilu1, Liu Xiaoyuan1, Wu Di1
1.State Key Laboratory of Mountain and Environment, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, China;2.School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qiannan Normal College for Nationalities, Duyun, Guizhou 558000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The soil-crop pollution characteristics and changes to the cultivated layer in a lead-zinc mining area of abandonment were analyzed, in order to explore the most reasonable phytoremediation system.[Methods] The distribution pattern and source of heavy-metal pollution in different areas of cultivated land were analyzed using the GIS-based Tominson load index method. The soil-crop pollution characteristics were studied by the enrichment factor method (BCF) and composite quality impact index method (IICQ).[Results] The contents of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Hg in the soil of the cultivated layer in the study area were 100, 45, 18, and 18 times of those of the background values of Guizhou Province, respectively. The levels of Cu, As, and Cr were basically the same as those of the background values. The planting areas of konjac were heavily polluted. The edible parts of stem-type crops had the strongest ability to enrich heavy metals, followed by rice, and the weakest melon crops. The local melon crops can be treated as the first plants to resist heavy metals.[Conclusion] Cd is the main control factor, and the konjac planting area is the main control area. According to the spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the study area, it is recommended to use super-enriched plant restoration. Additional recommendations include the activators working together in heavily polluted areas, to plant anti-enrichment vegetables and block the pollution sources in the moderately polluted areas, and to use passivation measures to achieve the purpose of restoring the heavy metals in the tillage layer soil in the rice-growing areas of the light-polluted areas.
Key words:  abandoned mining area  re-cultivated soil  soil-crop system  restoration measures  heavy metal pollution