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贵州省绥阳县麻黄洞土壤渗透水-洞穴水元素变化特征及气候响应
汤云涛1,2, 周忠发1,2, 朱粲粲1,2, 汪炎林1,2, 薛冰清1,2, 范宝祥1,2
1.贵州师范大学 喀斯特研究院/地理与环境科学学院, 贵州 贵阳 550001;2.国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心, 贵州 贵阳 550001
摘要:
[目的] 探究白云岩洞穴上覆土壤渗透水-洞穴水水化学元素变化特征及相互关系,揭示岩溶水Ca,Mg,Sr元素比值变化与洞外气候的响应关系。[方法] 以贵州省绥阳县双河洞洞穴系统中的麻黄洞为研究对象,通过麻黄洞4个洞穴水点和上覆3个土壤点土壤渗透水的定期监测、采样和室内实验,并运用统计分析方法和元素比值法对各监测指标进行比较分析。[结果] ①麻黄洞上覆土壤渗透水主要水化学指标表现为旱季 > 雨季、洞穴水主要水化学指标表现为雨季 > 旱季的季节性变化特征。②洞穴水EC,Ca2+,Mg2+,HCO3-,Sr2+离子浓度约为土壤渗透水的2~6倍,表明表层岩溶带岩溶过程对洞穴水水化学元素具有重要影响。③土壤渗透水对地表降雨和温度变化具有积极响应,旱季滞留于土壤中的大量矿质元素是导致4月份土壤渗透水中Ca,Mg,Sr浓度出现高值的主要原因。④洞穴水Mg/Ca、Sr/Ca比值变化及其相关性,反映了洞穴水受到来源、水-岩相互作用、洞穴水脱气沉积和先期方解石沉淀过程(PCP)等机制影响的协同性及洞穴上覆主要岩溶过程差异,因此其比值变化能够间接表现洞外温度和降雨变化。[结论] 土壤渗透水、洞穴水水化学元素具有明显的月间波动和季节性变化特征,且监测点间具有显著差异。两种类型水Ca,Mg,Sr比值变化及相关性对地表降雨和温度变化具有积极响应。
关键词:  洞穴水  土壤渗透水  水化学  变化特征  气候响应  麻黄洞  贵州省绥阳县
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.05.010
分类号:P641.3;P595
基金项目:贵州师范大学资助博士科研项目“喀斯特关键带洞穴系统碳循环机理研究”(GZNUD[2017]6号);国家自然科学基金地区项目“岩溶洞穴CO2迁移变化机制及对洞穴岩溶环境的影响研究”(41361081);贵州省高层次创新型人才培养计划—“百”层次人才(黔科合平台人才〔2016〕5674)
Characteristics of Soil Infiltration Water-Cave Water Elements and Climate Response Analysis in Mahuang Cave of Suiyang County, Guizhou Province
Tang Yuntao1,2, Zhou Zhongfa1,2, Zhu Cancan1,2, Wang Yanlin1,2, Xue Bingqing1,2, Fan Baoxiang1,2
1.Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences/Karst Research Institute, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, China;2.State Engineering Technology Institute for Karst Desertification Control, Guiyang, Guizhou China, 550001
Abstract:
[Objective] The characteristics and relationships of hydrochemistry in soil infiltration water (SIW) were studied in order to reveal the relationship between the changing ratios of Ca, Mg, and Sr in the karst water and the climate outside the cave.[Methods] Regularly monitoring, sampling, and experimenting on the four cave water pots and the overlying three SIW points in Mahuang cave, Suiyang County, Guizhou Province. Then, statistical analysis methods and comparative analysis of various monitoring indicators by the element ratio method were used.[Results] ① The main hydrochemistry indexes of the SIW showed dry season > rainy season, whilst the cave water showed the opposite characteristics. ② The concentration of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, and Sr2+ in the cave water was about 2~6 times higher than that of the SIW, which indicated that the karst process in epikarst had an important influence on the hydrochemistry elements in the cave. ③ The SIW had a positive response to surface rainfall and temperature changes, the large amounts of mineral elements retained in the soil during the dry season was the main reason for the high concentration of Ca, Mg, and Sr in the SIW in April. ④ The ratios of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in the cave water and their correlations reflected the synergy of the cave water by source, water-rock interaction, dewatering deposition of the cave water, prior calcite precipitation (PCP) process, and the main karst process of cave overlying. Therefore, the ratio changes can indirectly show the temperature outside the cave and changes in rainfall.[Conclusion] The hydrochemistry of the SIW and cave water have obvious characteristics of seasonal changes, there are differences between the monitoring pots, and there are significant differences between the monitoring points. The changes in the Ca, Mg, and Sr ratios of the two types of water and their correlations have positive responses to surface rainfall and temperature changes.
Key words:  cave water  soil infiltration water (SIW)  hydrochemistry  variation characteristics  environmental response  Mahuang cave  Suiyang County of Guizhou Province