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植被恢复对黄土高原矿区重构土壤理化性质、酶活性以及真菌群落的影响
李鹏飞1,2,3, 张兴昌1, 郝明德1, 崔勇兴1,2, 张燕江4, 朱世雷4
1.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.水利部 黄河水利委员会 黄河上中游管理局, 陕西 西安 710021;4.西北农林科技大学 资源环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的] 研究黄土高原矿区重构土壤植被恢复对土壤理化性质、酶活性以及真菌群落的影响,准确评价植被恢复对该地区的土壤生态恢复效果。[方法] 在内蒙古自治区准格尔旗选择3种典型植被恢复类型(灌木、乔木、草地)和未复垦地采集0-20 cm土壤样品,采用扩增子测序技术分析了土壤真菌多样性和群落组成,同时结合土壤理化性质探讨了不同植被恢复类型影响真菌群落多样性的重要因素。[结果] ①与未复垦地相比,3种典型植被恢复类型不仅对土壤理化性质和酶活性均有明显提升,还提高了土壤真菌可操作分类单元(OUTs)和多样性指数,且差异显著,以灌木的效果最好。②真菌主要菌门相对丰度在各样地变化趋势为子囊菌门(Ascomycota) > 担子菌门(Basidiomycota) > 球囊菌门(Glomeromycota),相对丰度之和已超过50%,土壤真菌群落结构在4个样地之间保持了一定的稳定性。③土壤含水量为影响真菌群落结构的最主要因素。[结论] 植被恢复影响土壤理化性质、酶活性及真菌群落多样性,黄土高原矿区生态恢复是一个漫长的过程,在生态恢复过程中,宜种植灌木来改善重构土壤的生态环境。
关键词:  植被恢复  土壤理化性质  土壤酶活性  黄土高原  矿区  真菌群落
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.05.001
分类号:S154.4
基金项目:国家科技基础性工作专项课题“能源开发区生态系统与环境变化调查”(SQ2012FY4910023-3)
Effects of Vegetation Restoration on Soil Physicochemical Properties, Enzyme Activities, and Fungal Community of Reconstructed Soil in a Mining Area on Loess Plateau
Li Pengfei1,2,3, Zhang Xingchang1, Hao Mingde1, Cui Yongxing1,2, Zhang Yanjiang4, Zhu Shilei4
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Upper and Middle Yellow River Bureau, Yellow River Conservancy Commission of the Ministry of Water Resources, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710021, China;4.College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] We studied the effects of vegetation restoration on soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and fungal community of reconstructed soil in mining area of the Loess Plateau, to evaluate the effects of vegetation restoration on soil ecological restoration.[Methods] In Jungar Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, three typical types of vegetation restoration (shrubs, arbors, and herbs) and unreclaimed land for sampling (0-20 cm) were chosen. The diversity and community of the soil fungi were analyzed using a high throughput, and the important factors affecting the community diversity of the fungi under different vegetation restoration managements were discussed in combination with the physicochemical properties of soil.[Results] ① Compared with unreclaimed land, the three typical vegetation restoration types, not only improved the soil physicochemical properties and enzyme activities significantly, but also improved the soil fungal operational taxonomic units (OUTs) and diversity index with significant differences, among which shrubs had the best effect. ② The relative abundance of the main phyla of fungi had a trend as follows:Ascomycota > Basidiomycota > Glomeromycota, and the sum of those phyla was more than 50% of the community. The community structure of the soil fungi remained stable among the four sampling sites. ③ The soil water content was the main factor affecting the structure of the fungal community.[Conclusion] Vegetation restoration affects the soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and fungal community diversity. Ecological restoration in mining area of the Loess Plateau is a long process, in which shrubs should be planted to improve the ecological environment of the reconstructed soil.
Key words:  vegetation restoration  soil physicochemical properties  soil enzyme activities  the Loess Plateau  mining area  fungal community