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东北黑土区坡耕地土壤侵蚀特征与多营力复合侵蚀的研究重点
郑粉莉1,2, 张加琼1,2, 刘刚1,2, 范昊明3, 王彬4, 沈海鸥5
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨陵 712100;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨陵 712100;3.沈阳农业大学, 辽宁 沈阳 110866;4.北京林业大学, 北京 100083;5.吉林农业大学, 吉林 长春 130118
摘要:
[目的]分析东北黑土区坡耕地土壤侵蚀特征,为该区复合土壤侵蚀研究及其有效防治提供重要科学依据。[方法]基于大量野外调查和理论研究以及文献资料,概述了复合土壤侵蚀的研究现状,分析了东北黑土区坡耕地土壤侵蚀特征。[结果]东北黑土区坡耕地土壤侵蚀特点主要为:多营力复合侵蚀的季节更替和空间叠加作用,农田沟蚀严重,坡面汇流引起的土壤侵蚀更加突出,雨滴打击作用和壤中流形成是坡面土壤侵蚀的主要驱动力。当前复合土壤侵蚀研究的主要内容为:冻融作用对风蚀和水蚀的影响,风水复合侵蚀,东北黑土区多外营力复合侵蚀研究。[结论]复合土壤侵蚀的研究重点为:①多种外营力相互作用的坡面复合侵蚀过程机制;②冻融作用对土壤抗侵蚀能力的影响机制;③量化冻融作用、融雪、降雨径流和风力侵蚀对坡面侵蚀和沟蚀的贡献;④多外营力作用的流域尺度泥沙来源诊断;⑤复合土壤侵蚀预报模型研发;⑥复合土壤侵蚀防治措施的有效性评价;⑦东北黑土区复合土壤侵蚀防治分区。
关键词:  东北黑土区  坡耕地  土壤侵蚀特征  复合侵蚀  防治措施
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.049
分类号:S157
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目"黑土区多种外营力互作的坡面侵蚀过程与机制"(41571263);国家重点研发计划项目"黑土侵蚀防治机理与调控技术"(2016YFE0202900)
Characteristics of Soil Erosion on Sloping Farmlands and Key Fields for Studying Compound Soil Erosion Caused by Multi-forces in Mollisol Region of Northeast China
Zheng Fenli1,2, Zhang Jiaqiong1,2, Liu Gang1,2, Fan Haoming3, Wang Bin4, Shen Haiou5
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.Shenyang Agriculture University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110866, China;4.Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China;5.Jilin Agriculture University, Changchun, Jilin 130118, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The characteristics of soil erosion on sloping farmlands in the Mollisol region of Northeast China were analyzed in order to provide important scientific basis for the research, and the effective prevention and control of compound soil erosion.[Methods] Based on field investigation, theoretical researches and literature review, this paper outlined current status of compound soil erosion and analyzed characteristics of soil erosion on sloping farmlands in the Mollisol region of Northeast China.[Results] The characteristics of soil erosion on sloping farmlands in the Mollisol region of Northeast China included seasonal alternation and spatial overlapping of compound soil erosion induced by multi-forces, severe gully erosion in farmlands, strong performance of inflow erosion, and raindrop impact and seepage flow were key driving forces for hillslope soil erosion. The current research of compound soil erosion covered effects of freeze-thaw action on wind and water erosion, compound soil erosion by wind and water agents, and compound erosion caused by multi-forces in the Mollisol region of Northeast China.[Conclusion] The key fields for studying compound erosion caused by multi-forces were as follows:① processes and mechanisms of hillslope compound erosion caused by multi-forces; ② mechanism of freeze-thaw impacts on soil anti-erosivity; ③ quantifying contribution of freeze-thaw, snow melting, rainfall and inflow to hillslope soil erosion and gully erosion; ④ identifying watershed sediment source under multi-forces actions; ⑤ developing compound soil erosion prediction model; ⑥ assessing effectiveness of conservation measures for controlling compound soil erosion; ⑦ prevention zonalization of compound soil erosion in the Mollisol region of Northeast China.
Key words:  the Mollisol region of Northeast China  sloping farmland  characteristics of soil erosion  compound soil erosion  conservation measures