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新疆天山东段南北坡土壤侵蚀调查
王颢霖1, 焦菊英1,2, 安韶山1,2, 庞国伟3, 陈同德1, 赵春敬1, 曹雪2, 刘欣3, 税军峰1,2, 曹晓萍1,2, 杨勤科3, 郭明航1,2
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;3.西北大学 城市与环境学院, 陕西 西安 710127
摘要:
[目的]开展新疆维吾尔自治区天山南北坡土壤侵蚀调查,研究该区土壤侵蚀特征和影响因子,以期为该区域水土流失防治提供科学依据。[方法]在新疆天山东段南北坡选取了14个调查单元,于2019年6月25-30日,对调查单元内的土壤侵蚀类型与特征、土地利用类型和植被生长状况等进行了调查。[结果]天山南北坡土壤侵蚀主要发生在草地和开发建设项目区。草地整体退化严重,放牧导致鳞片状侵蚀和羊道侵蚀广泛存在,局部区域发生剥蚀、掏蚀和重力侵蚀。开发建设项目防护措施较少,侵蚀表现形式以堆积体沟蚀为主。[结论]过度放牧导致研究区草地生态系统恢复缓慢,开发建设项目对原生态系统的破坏,引起了严重的人为加速侵蚀,严重威胁天山区域的生态安全。在该区域迫切需要开展土壤侵蚀基础数据的监测与研究,加大水土保持工作力度,建立合理的放牧制度,加速生态系统恢复速度,减少水土流失,保障天山地区生态安全和健康发展。
关键词:  土壤侵蚀  天山东段  土地利用  草地退化  放牧
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.048
分类号:S157
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技专项"泛第三极环境变化与绿色丝绸之路建设"子课题"土壤侵蚀定量评价与分区防控对策"(XDA20040202)
Investigation on Soil Erosion in North and South Slopes of Eastern Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang Wei Autonomous Region
Wang Haolin1, Jiao Juying1,2, An Shaoshan1,2, Pang Guowei3, Chen Tongde1, Zhao Chunjing1, Cao Xue2, Liu Xin3, Shui Junfeng1,2, Cao Xiaoping1,2, Yang Qinke3, Guo Minghang1,2
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710127, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Soil erosion characteristics and impact factors in north and south slopes of the Eastern Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang Wei Autonomous Region were investigated and studied in order to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of soil erosion.[Methods] In the north and south solpes of the Eastern Tianshan Mountain, 14 survey units were selected to investigate the types and characteristics of soil erosion, land use types and vegetation growth status from June 25 to 30, 2019.[Results] Soil erosion mainly occurred in grassland and construction land. Grassland degradation was serious and grazing led to scaly erosion and animal erosion. And, some areas were exposed to denudation, sapping and sheep path erosion. There were less land protection measures in construction, and gully erosion was the primary form.[Conclusion] Over grazing had led to slowing recovery of grassland ecosystems, and construction had destroyed the original ecosystem, causing serious artificial acceleration of erosion and seriously threatening the ecological security of the Tianshan region. It was urgent to carry out soil erosion monitoring and research on the basic data, strengthen the work of soil and water conservation, establish a reasonable grazing system, speed up the restoration of the ecosystem, reduce soil and water loss, and ensure the ecological safety and healthy development of Tianshan Mountains.
Key words:  soil erosion  Eastern Tianshan Mountain  land use  grassland degradation  grazing