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“稻-鸭-虾”生态种养模式水体中的氮磷浓度及藻类生物量变化
黄巍, 余经纬, 李玉成, 张学胜, 王宁
安徽大学 资源与环境工程学院, 安徽 合肥 230601
摘要:
[目的]对"稻-鸭-虾"生态种养模式水体中氮磷浓度及藻类生物量的变化进行研究,为控制稻田排水中氮磷引起的农业面源污染,改善稻田生态环境提供科学参考。[方法]对比"稻-鸭-虾"生态种养模式与常规种植模式,分析不同种植模式下的差异及优越性,重点研究"稻-鸭-虾"的内在协同作用对水体中氮磷及藻类的变化影响。[结果]①相比于常规种植,"稻-鸭-虾"生态种养稻田水体中总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)含量分别减少32.43%和19.35%,且对初始灌溉水中TN,TP的去除率可达到38.7%和26.9%。②"稻-鸭-虾"生态种养可改变稻田水体中氮磷的形态,在水稻全生育期内,可溶性磷(DTP)和颗粒态磷(PP)比例更加稳定,而在水稻后期,稻田水体中有机氮(ON)比例显著提高。③"稻-鸭-虾"生态种养改善了水体中藻类植物群落结构,稻田排水中藻类生物多样性指数提高到2.34。④相比于常规种植,"稻-鸭-虾"生态种养中水稻的有效穗、穗粒数和结实率分别提高了4.83%,5.28%和2.84%,稻米中蛋白质含量增加了8.15%,显著提高经济效益。[结论]相比于常规种植,"稻-鸭-虾"生态种养既能有效减少稻田水体中N,P含量,增加水体稳定性,又能提高水稻的有效穗、穗粒数和结实率,增加了经济效益,且并未带来重金属污染风险,是值得推广的大田种养技术。
关键词:  “稻—鸭—虾”生态种养  氮磷  藻类  生物多样性指数  经济效益
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.036
分类号:S19;X171.5
基金项目:国家科技重大专项"水源涵养和生态保育清洁小流域技术综合集成应用推广"(2017ZX07603-002)
Changes of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Algae in Water Under Rice-Duck-Shrimp Ecological Planting and Breeding Model
Huang Wei, Yu Jingwei, Li Yucheng, Zhang Xuesheng, Wang Ning
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230601, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The changes of nitrogen and phosphorus and algae in the water under "rice-duck-shrimp ecological planting and breeding model were studied in order to provide a scientific reference for controlling agricultural non-point source pollution caused by nitrogen and phosphorus in the drainage of rice fields and improving the ecological environment of rice fields.[Methods] The differences and advantages of different planting modes were analyzed by comparing the ecological planting and breeding model of rice-duck-shrimp and the conventional planting model. The study focused on the impact of the internal synergy of rice-duck-shrimp on the changes of nitrogen, phosphorus and algae in water.[Results] ① The contents of total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) in rice-duck-shrimp ecological paddy field reduced by 32.43% and 19.35%, respectively. The removal rates of total TN and total TP in initial irrigation water were 38.7% and 26.9%, respectively. ② The changes of nitrogen and phosphorus forms were altered by the ecological planting and breeding mode of rice-duck-shrimp. During the whole growth period of rice, the proportion of soluble phosphorus(DTP) and granular phosphorus(PP) was more stable. However, the proportion of organic nitrogen(ON) in paddy water significantly increased in the later period of rice. ③ The rice-duck-shrimp ecological planting breeding model could improve the community structure of algae in water. The algae biodiversity index in paddy field drainage increased to 2.34. ④ Compared with conventional cultivation, the effective panicles, grains per spikee and seed setting rate of rice in rice-duck-shrimp ecological planting breeding model increased by 4.83%, 5.28% and 2.84%, respectively. Moreover, the protein content of rice increased by 8.15%, which significantly improved the economic benefits.[Conclusion] Compared with conventional cultivation, rice-duck-shrimp ecological planting and breeding model could not only effectively reduce the content of N and P in rice field water, increase the stability of water, but also improve the effective panicles, grains per spike and seed setting rate of rice, which increases economic benefits and does not bring the risk of heavy metal pollution. Therefore, it was worth popularizing as a farming technology.
Key words:  rice-duck-shrimp ecological planting and breeding  nitrogen and phosphorus  algae  biodiversity index  economic benefits