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生物炭对日光大棚土壤团聚体结构的影响
王亚琼1,2,3, 牛文全1,4, 李学凯3, 王婕3, 官雅辉1, 董继红5
1.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.中国旱区节水农业研究院, 陕西 杨凌 712100;4.西北农林科技大学 水利 与建筑工程学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100;5.长安大学 地质工程与测绘学院, 陕西 西安 710054
摘要:
[目的]探明果木生物炭对杨凌地区日光大棚土壤团聚体结构的影响,提出适宜该地区的生物炭添加量,为改良日光温室大棚土壤结构,提升作物产量提供科学依据。[方法]设置10,30,50,70,90 t/hm2共5个生物炭添加量处理,以未添加生物炭处理为对照,采用干筛法和湿筛法,对比分析不同处理的团聚体几何平均直径、平均重量直径、破坏率和分形维数等指标。最后通过分析不同生物炭添加量下的作物产量,综合考虑土壤团聚体指标,提出最优的生物炭添加量。[结果]添加生物炭后,土壤机械稳定性大团聚体含量增加0.6~4.6 mg/kg,机械稳定性微团聚体含量降低4.0%~32.6%;添加生物炭后,粒径为3~2 mm,2~1 mm,1~0.5 mm水稳性大团聚体含量分别增加25.3%~41.2%,22.7%~74.2%,9.1%~46.4%,粒径为0.5~0.25 mm水稳性大团聚体含量降低2.1%~18.1%。生物炭能够促进小粒径微团聚体的形成,但对微团聚体稳定性和总含量没有显著影响。添加生物炭后菠菜鲜重显著提升(68.7%~214.9%)。[结论]生物炭能够改良土壤团聚体结构。综合考虑团聚体、作物产量因素,在日光大棚添加70 t/hm2生物炭效果最好。
关键词:  生物炭  团聚体  稳定性  植株鲜重
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.030
分类号:S152.4
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目"西北典型农区高效节水灌溉技术与集成应用"(2016YFC0400202);国家自然科学基金项目"水肥一体化滴灌滴头堵塞机理及防堵策略研究"(51679205)
Effects of Biochar on Soil Aggregate Structure in Greenhouse
Wang Yaqiong1,2,3, Niu Wenquan1,4, Li Xuekai3, Wang Jie3, Guan Yahui1, Dong Jihong5
1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & MWR, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Institute of Water-saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, China;4.College of Water Conservancy and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, China;5.College of Geology Engineering and Geomatics, Chang'an University, Xi'an, Shannxi 710054, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of wood-source biochar on the soil aggregate structure were studied to find a suitable biochar addition and to provide a scientific basis for improving the soil structure and increasing crop yield for solar greenhouse soil in Yangling District, Shaanxi Province.[Methods] Five biochar treatments of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 t/hm2, and a control treatment without any biochar, were set up. For all treatments, soil aggregate mean weight diameter, geometric mean diameter, damage rate and fractal dimension were calculated through the dry sieve method and the wet sieve method. And, crop yields under different biochar additions were also analyzed. Finally, an appropriate biochar addition was concluded both in considering soil aggregates and crop yields.[Results] The results showed that the mechanically stable dry aggregates significantly increased by 0.6~4.6 mg/kg and the dry microaggregates decreased by 4.0%~32.6% compared with that of control treatment. Further, after adding biochar, 3~2 mm, 2~1 mm and 1~0.5 mm water stable large aggregates increased by 25.3%~41.2%, 22.7%~74.2%, 9.1%~46.4% respectively; however 0.5~0.25 mm water stable large aggregates decreased by 2.1%~18.1%. Biochar could promote the formation of small size microaggregates, but have a non-significant effect on microaggregate stability and microaggregates. Additionally, biochar had a positive effect on the spinach fresh weight with an increase of 68.8%~214.9%.[Conclusion] Biochar can ameliorate the soil aggregate structure. Taking soil aggregates and crop fields into account, the 70 t/hm2 biochar has the optimal effect in greenhouse.
Key words:  biochar  aggregates  stability  crop weight