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基于微生物发酵的废弃菜叶无害化处理及腐熟安全性评价
李瑞琴1,2,3, 徐瑞1,2,3, 于安芬1,2,3, 白滨1,2,3, 丁文姣1,2,3
1.甘肃省农业科学院 农业质量标准与检测技术研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730070;2.甘肃省农业科学院 畜草与绿色农业研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730070;3.农业部农产品质量安全风险评估实验室(兰州), 甘肃 兰州 730070
摘要:
[目的]探讨添加微生物菌剂的废弃菜叶无害化处理及腐熟安全性,解决发酵过程中污染环境、提高发酵堆体孔隙度、通气量、温度上升慢等问题。[方法]以废弃菜叶为原料,以玉米秸秆、牛粪等为辅料,采用调控发酵原料的碳氮比、微生物菌剂种类、发酵堆体的水分及温度等方法。[结果]优化了废弃菜叶微生物发酵原料的最佳配比:废弃菜叶、玉米秸秆、牛粪、发酵菌剂的重量比100∶4∶2∶0.25;建立了一套废弃菜叶微生物发酵腐熟度指标评价体系,即发酵堆体温度≥50℃,持续3~5 d,pH值小于等于8.0,电导率小于等于2.0 mS/cm,E4/E6比小于等于2.5,C/N比小于20,发芽指数GI大于80;发酵产物的全氮、有机质、碱解氮、速效钾等养分及安全限量指标均符合行业标准。[结论]废弃菜叶微生物发酵终产物的pH值、电导率、E4/E6值、C/N值、GI等理化指标和生物指标均符合腐熟度指标,并达到蔬菜栽培基质的肥力及安全限量指标要求。
关键词:  废弃菜叶  微生物发酵  原料配比  发酵条件调控  腐熟度评价指标
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.027
分类号:Q938.1+1
基金项目:国家农产品质量安全风险评估项目“特色农产品百合质量安全风险评估”(GJFP2018-2019);甘肃省科技重大专项(1102NKDJ031);财政部国家社会公益项目绿色农业科学研究示范项目(2007-04)。
Harmless Treatment and Composting Safety Evaluation of Discarded Cabbage Based on Microbial Fermentation
Li Ruiqin1,2,3, Xu Rui1,2,3, Yu Anfen1,2,3, Bai Bin1,2,3, Ding Wenjiao1,2,3
1.Agricultural Quality Standards and Testing Technology Institute, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China;2.Animal Husbandy, Pasture and Green Agricultural Institute, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China;3.Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products(Lanzhou), Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Abstract:
[Objective] This study aims at discussing the harmlessness treatment and maturity safety of waste vegetable leaves with microbial agent, in order to solve the problems of environmental pollution during fermentation, and improve the porosity, ventilation and temperature of fermentation reactor.[Methods] Waste vegetable leaves were used as raw materials, corn straw and cow dung were used as auxiliary materials, and methods such as adjusting the carbon-nitrogen ratio of fermentation raw materials, types of microbial inoculum, moisture and temperature of fermentation stack were adopted.[Results] The optimal ratio of microbial fermentation raw materials for waste vegetable leaves was optimized, and the weight ratio of waste vegetable leaves, corn stalks, cow dung and fermenting agent was 100:4:2:0.25. A set of evaluation system for microbial fermentation maturity index of waste vegetable leaves was established. The temperature of the fermentation reactor was ≥ 50℃, lasts for 3~5 days, pH value was ≤ 8.0, conductivity was ≥ 2.0 mS/cm, E4/E6 ratio was ≤ 2.5, C/N ratio was < 20, and germination index GI was >80. The nutrients and safety limit indexes of total nitrogen, organic matter, alkali nitrogen and available potassium of the fermentation products were in line with industry standards.[Conclusion] The pH value, electrical conductivity, E4/E6, C/N, GI and other physicochemical and biological indicators of the product of microbial fermentation in the waste cabbage leaves all meet the requirements of the fertility and safety limits of vegetable cultivation matrix.
Key words:  waste leaves  microbial fermentation  ratio of raw materials  regulation of fermentation conditions  maturity evaluation index