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保水剂构件的保水保肥效果研究
雷锋文, 符颖怡, 廖宗文, 卫尤明, 毛小云
华南农业大学 资源环境学院, 广东 广州 510642
摘要:
[目的]针对水土流失造成的肥料养分流失及部分地区干旱缺水的问题,进行节水保肥的系列研究,阐明保水构件的保水保肥效果及其应用前景。[方法]利用保水剂加工成各种形状的保水构件,并使其获得的保水保肥效果优于把保水剂和土混匀的常规方法。[结果]在同等淋水量的情况下使用保水构件可减少65%的水分流失,N,P,K养分流失可减少89%以上;盆栽试验中,在干旱胁迫情况下,保水构件可使玉米增产155%;大田试验显示,自然降雨条件下,保水构件可使玉米增产26%,甘蔗增产10.5%且糖度增加。同时N,P,K养分下渗流失减少而对养分的吸收增加。[结论]系列试验说明保水构件可提高作物产量、质量和对养分的吸收。
关键词:  节水  保水  保肥  保水剂  保水构件
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.025
分类号:S2;S157.3
基金项目:农业部公益性行业(农业)科研专项“钾肥高效利用与钾素替代技术研究”(201203013)
Effects of Water Pad on Fertilizer and Water Saving
Lei Fengwen, Fu Yingyi, Liao Zongwen, Wei Youming, Mao Xiaoyun
College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, China
Abstract:
[Objective] For solving the problems of drought and nutrients loss caused by soil erosion, a series of studies on water and fertilizer saving were conducted in order to expound the effects of water pad on fertilizer and water saving and its application prospect.[Methods] Compared to the conventional method of mixing water absorbing polymer (WAP) with soils, WAP was used to make water pad to obtain a better water and fertilizer saving effect.[Results] Under the same watering condition, the application of water pad could reduce water loss by 65%, and reduce nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrients loss by more than 89%. Pot experiment showed that under drought stress condition, the application of water pad could increase corn yield by 155%. Field experiment showed that under natural rainfall condition, the application of water pad could increase corn yield by 26%, and increase sugarcane yield by 10.5%, and the sugar degree increaed. In addition, with the application of water pad, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrients loss decreased, while nutrients absorption increased.[Conclusion] A serial of experiments indicate that water pad can increase crop yields, quality and nutrient uptake.
Key words:  water saving  water holding  fertilizer saving  water absorbing polymer  water pad