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黄土丘陵沟壑区水土保持关键措施变化特征
高健翎, 张建国, 朱莉莉, 马红斌, 苏鹏飞, 李骁
黄河流域水土保持生态环境监测中心, 陕西 西安 710021
摘要:
[目的]揭示黄土高原地区不同水土保持措施各阶段特点,为水土流失治理的关键措施和主要策略提供理论依据。[方法]以黄土丘陵沟壑区1954—2015年不同水土保持措施数据为基础,分析了梯田、造林、种草、封禁、淤地坝等5项水土保持措施的变化。[结果]各项措施的应用面积均随着治理年限增加呈上升趋势,其中以造林措施增幅最快,面积最大。各项措施历年增量比重相对稳定,造林措施增量比重最大为58%,封禁治理措施的面积增量比重逐步上升,梯田面积增量比重逐年下降;淤地坝工程数量表现出先增加后降低的趋势。[结论]黄土丘陵沟壑区水土保持措施的时空变化格局与国家政策的指导性与地方治理需求有关,造林是该区域的最为主要的水土保持措施,封禁保护已成为黄土高原植被恢复的发展趋势。
关键词:  黄土丘陵沟壑区  关键措施  水土保持
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.019
分类号:S157.2
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“水资源高效开发利用”重点专项“黄河流域水沙变化机理与趋势预测”(2016YFC0402408-3)
Change Characteristics of Key Measures of Soil and Water Conservation in Hill-gully Region of Loess Plateau
Gao Jianling, Zhang Jianguo, Zhu Lili, Ma Hongbin, Su Pengfei, Li Xiao
Monitoring Center for Soil and Water Conservation and Ecological Environment of Yellow River Basin, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710021, China
Abstract:
[Objective] This paper reveals the characteristics of soil and water conservation measures in different stages of the Loess Plateau in order to provide theoretical basis for key measures and main strategies of soil and water loss control.[Methods] Based on the data of different soil and water conservation measures from 1954 to 2015 in the loess hilly and gully region, we analyzed the changes of the key measures of soil and water conservation, such as terrace, afforestation, grass planting, closure treatment and silt dam.[Results] The application area of the key measures of soil and water conservation increased with the growing governance years, and the fastest increase rate was the measure of afforestation. The incremental proportion of various soil and water conservation measures was relatively stable over the years. The maximum incremental proportion of woodland was 58%, and closed treatment area gradually increased while terrace area gradually decreased. The number of silt dams increased firstly and then decreased.[Conclusion] The temporal and spatial variation pattern of soil and water conservation measures is related to the guiding principle of national policies and the governance requirement of local governance in the loess hilly and gully region. Afforestation is the most important soil and water conservation measure in the region, and closure and protection has become the development trend of vegetation restoration in the Loess Plateau.
Key words:  the hill-gully region of Loess Plateau  key measures  soil and water conservation