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多沙粗沙区露天煤矿水土保持生态效应的监测评价
吕文星, 高亚军, 徐十锋, 李东
黄河水文水资源科学研究院, 河南 郑州 450004
摘要:
[目的]通过开展露天煤矿水土保持生态效应监测评价,判定水土保持措施防护效果及其可行性。[方法]以陕西省神榆矿区西湾露天煤矿为例,以实际监测数据为支撑,从调水效益、保土效益和植被恢复3个方面建立了评价指标体系。采用德尔菲法确定了指标权重,利用线性加权求和法建立综合评价模型,最终计算得出该项目不同建设时期水土保持生态效应值。[结果]生态效应值为运行期(0.683) > 试运行期(0.344) > 施工前期(0.213);工程实施以来,治理总面积349.72 hm2,治理前后,水土流失面积由426.71 hm2下降到376.63 hm2,植被覆盖度由20.20%上升到27.18%,拦蓄径流量增加了7 530 m3,保土量增加了6.90×104 t。[结论]陕西省神榆矿区西湾露天煤矿通过实施水土保持方案设计的水土保持工程、植物等措施防护体系,取得了良好的治理效果和生态效应。
关键词:  层次分析法  露天煤矿项目  水土保持生态效应  多沙粗沙区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.017
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家重点研发计划专题“大中尺度流域洪水产输沙特征及阶段变化”(2016YFC040240202)
Monitoring and Evaluation of Ecological Benefit of Soil and Water Conservation at Open-Pit Coal Mine Project in Coarse Sandy Area
Lü Wenxing, Gao Yajun, Xu Shifeng, Li Dong
Yellow River Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources, Zhengzhou, He'nan 450004, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The monitoring and evaluation of the ecological effect of soil and water conservation in the open-pit coal mine project were conducted in order to determine the protection effect and the feasibility of the soil and water conservation measures.[Methods] With the actual monitoring data, we took Xiwan open-pit coal mine in Shaanxi Province and coal preparation plant project as an example in this study. The evaluation index system was established in terms of soil and water conservation and vegetation recovery. The index weight was determined by Delphy method and the comprehensive evaluation model was established by linear weighted sum method to calculate the value of ecological effect of soil and water conservation in different periods of the project construction.[Results] The results showed that the value of ecological effect of operation period (0.683) > trial operation period (0.344) > early construction period (0.213). Since the implementation of the project, the total area of soil and water erosion has decreased from 426.71 hm2 to 376.63 hm2, the vegetation coverage has increased from 20.20% to 27.18%, the interception runoff has increased by 7 530 m3, and the soil conservation has increased by 6.90×104 t.[Conclusion] Xiwan open-pit coal mine in Shenyu Mining area of Shaanxi Province has got good control effect and ecological effect by implementing soil and water conservation engineering and plant protection system designed by soil and water conservation scheme.
Key words:  analytic hierarchy process method  open-pit coal mine project  soil and water conservation ecological benefic  area with abundant and coarse sediment