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不同耕作方式下黑土区农田中小型土壤动物群落特征
赵乌英嘎1,2,3, 红梅1,2, 赵巴音那木拉1,2, 刘鹏飞1, 美丽1, 王文东1, 李金龙3
1.内蒙古农业大学 草原与资源环境学院, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010019;2.内蒙古自治区土壤质量与养分资源重点实验室, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010019;3.内蒙古阿荣旗农业技术推广中心, 内蒙古 呼伦贝尔 162750
摘要:
[目的]研究中小型土壤动物群落组成、多样性、动态特征及垂直分布情况,反映土壤环境状况,为探索黑土区农田适宜的耕作方式提供参考依据。[方法]采用改良干漏斗(modified tullgren)法分离中小型土壤动物,分析比较了不同耕作方式下中小型土壤动物的群落结构及分布特征。[结果]从研究样地共捕获中小型土壤动物3 749只,隶属47个类群。其中四奥甲螨科(Quadroppiidae)和等节科(Isotomidae)为试验区的优势类群。3种耕作方式下,0—10 cm土层中小型土壤动物个体数占总个体数的71%,在垂直分布上具有明显的表聚性。深松处理下中小型土壤动物个体数最多(1 671),CK处理下类群数最多(41)。CK处理下中小型土壤动物多样性指数和丰富度指数最高,分别为(2.81)和(3.81);深松处理下中小型土壤动物优势度指数最高(0.15)。不同耕作方式下土壤渗透总量表现为深松 > CK > 免耕;土壤含水量和土壤温度表现为深松 > 免耕 > CK;土壤容重表现为免耕 > CK > 深松。中小型土壤动物个体数与土壤容重呈显著正相关(p<0.05);中小型土壤动物丰富度指数与土壤有机质呈显著正相关(p<0.05);中小型土壤动物均匀度指数与土壤渗透总量呈极显著正相关(p<0.01)。[结论]耕作方式对中小型土壤动物的群落结构有明显的影响,深松耕作后显著提高中小型土壤动物个体数,能够有效改善土壤环境,比免耕和传统耕作更有利于中小型土壤动物的生存与繁殖。
关键词:  耕作方式  深松  免耕  中小型土壤动物  土壤容重
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.007
分类号:S154.6;S344
基金项目:农业部黑土地保护与利用试点项目“农业部公益性行业(农业)科研专项”(2016-GC0082-5)
Community Characteristics of Soil Mesofauna in Farmland in Black Soil Region Under Different Farming Practices
Zhao Wuyingga1,2,3, Hong Mei1,2, Zhao Bayinnamula1,2, Liu Pengfei1, Mei Li1, Wang Wendong1, Li Jinlong3
1.College of Grassland Resources and Environment, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia 010019, China;2.Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Soil Quality and Nutrient Resoures, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia 010019, China;3.Inner Mongolia Arong Banner Agricultural Extension Center, Hulunbeier, Inner Mongolia 162750, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The community composition, diversity, dynamic characteristic and vertical distribution of soil mesofauna was investigated in order to reflect the soil environment and provide the reference for exploring the suitable farming methods in the black soil area.[Methods] Soil mesofauna was isolated by modified tullgren method, the community structure and distribution characteristics of soil mesofauna under different tillage methods were analyzed and compared.[Results] A total of 3 749 soil mesofauna were collected from the study plots, belonging to 47 groups. Among which, Quadroppiidae and Isotomidae were the dominant groups in the experimental area. Under the three tillage methods, the number of soil mesofauna in the 0-10 cm soil layer accounted for 71% of the total number of individuals, and the vertical distribution had obvious surface aggregation. The number of soil mesofauna was the highest(1 671) under deep pine(DP)treatment, and the number of groups was the largest under CK treatment (41). The diversity index and richness index of soil mesofauna under CK treatment were the highest (2.81 and 3.81 respectively). The dominance index of soil mesofauna under deep pine (DP) treatment was the highest, which was 0.15. The total osmotic amount of soil infiltration under different tillage methods was deep pine(DP) > check(CK) > no-tillage(NT); The soil moisture and soil temperature were DP > NT > CK deep pine > no-tillage > check; The soil bulk density was no-tillage(NT) > check (CK)> deep pine(DP). There was a significant positive correlation between the individual number of soil mesofauna and soil bulk density (p<0.05). The abundance index of soil mesofauna was positively correlated with soil organic matter (p<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the evenness index of soil mesofauna and the total soil permeability (p<0.01).[Conclusion] The farming methods have obvious influence on the community structure of soil mesofauna, and significantly improve the number of soil mesofauna individuals after deep pine tillage, which can effectively improve the soil environment and is more beneficial to the survival and reproduction of soil mesofauna than no-tillage and traditional tillage.
Key words:  tillage method  deep pine  no-tillage  soil mesofauna  soil bulk density