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南方山丘区水源地土地利用结构对河库水质的影响——以珊溪水库流域为例
陈丰禹1, 王为木1,2, 刘慧1,2, 夏继红1,2, 马飘1
1.河海大学 农业工程学院, 江苏 南京 210098;2.河海大学 南方地区高效灌排与农业水土环境教育部重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210098
摘要:
[目的]探明珊溪水库流域土地利用结构与河库水质的相关性,为南方山丘区土地开发利用和水源地保护提供依据。[方法]在库区以及河流入库点设置23个监测断面,于2017年7月及2018年1月进行实地取样监测,利用2016年TM影像数据对研究区用地类型进行划分,并通过ArcGIS水文、空间分析功能将整个流域分为8个子流域,分析每个子流域土地利用结构。选取高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)、溶解氧(DO)4个水质指标分析其时空变化特征,探讨子流域不同坡度下土地利用结构对河库水质的影响。[结果]珊溪水库流域土地以林草地、耕地为主,两者面积比例总和达到80%以上。枯水期河库水质整体优于丰水期。各水质指标与林草地比例呈现负相关,而与耕地、建设用地呈正相关,丰水期土地利用结构与水质相关性相比枯水期更为明显。河库水质与不同坡度土地利用类型的相关性有差异,低坡度带(<15°)CODMn与耕地比例呈显著正相关;中坡度带(15°~25°)TN,TP与林草地比例呈显著负相关,TN与耕地比例呈显著正相关。[结论]库区水体质量良好。在流域尺度上林草地和耕地是影响水体污染物浓度的主要土地利用类型。丰水期耕地是氮磷元素的主要输出源,林草地在一定程度上削减了氮磷元素的入河量,具有一定的正效应。
关键词:  土地利用结构  水质  坡度  水源地
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.02.041
分类号:X171, X522
基金项目:浙江省水利厅科技项目“浙江省水库型水源地生物监测技术研究:重要饮用水源健康快速评判与实施方案研究”(20180611-0002);国家重点研发计划项目“生态灾害对渔业生境和生物多样性的影响及其预测评估”(2018YFD0900805)
Influence of Land Use Structure on Water Quality of River and Reservoir in Water Source Land of Southern Hilly Areas -Thaking Shanxi Reservoir Waterhed as a Case Study
Chen Fengyu1, Wang Weimu1,2, Liu Hui1,2, Xia Jihong1,2, Ma Piao1
1.College of Agricultural Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210098, China;2.Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation-Drainage and Agricultural Soil-Water Environment in Southern China, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210098, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The purpose of this research is to explore the correlation between land use structure and water quality in Shanxi reservoir watershed, and to provide basis for land use development and water source protection in sourthern hilly areas.[Methods] The 23 monitoring sections were set up in the reservoir area and the inflow point of the river. Sampling and monitoring were carried out in July 2017 and January 2018. The land use types of the research area were classified by using the 2016 TM image data. The whole basin was divided into 8 sub-basins by the hydrology and spatial analysis functions of ArcGIS so as to analyze the land use structure of each sub-basin. Four water quality monitoring indexes such as permanganate index(CODMn), total nitrogen(TN), total phosphorus(TP) and dissolved oxygen(DO) were selected to analyze their spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and to explore the impact of land use structure on water quality in different slopes of the sub-basin.[Results] The land of Shanxi reservoir is mainly forest, grassland and arable land that accounts for the 80% of total basin area. The water quality of river banks in dry season is better than that in wet season. Each water quality index was negatively correlated with the proportion of forest and grassland, but positively correlated with cultivated land and construction land. The correlation between land use structure and water quality was more obvious in wet season than in dry season. The correlation between water quality and land use types on different slopes was different, CODMn in low slope zone(< 15°) was positively correlated with the proportion of cultivated land, TN and TP in middle slope zone(< 15°~25°) were negatively correlated with the proportion of forest and grassland, and TN was positively correlated with the proportion of cultivated land.[Conclusion] Most of the water quality in the reservoir area were good. The forest, grassland and cultivated land are the main land use types affecting the concentration of pollutants in water at watershed scale. Cultivated land is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus output in wet season. Forest and grassland reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus into the rivers to a certain extent, which has a positive effect.
Key words:  land use structure  water quality  slope  water source