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江西省生产建设项目弃土弃渣土壤侵蚀定量研究
房焕英1, 谢颂华1, 黄鹏飞1, 刘英2
1.江西省水土保持科学研究院, 江西 南昌 330029;2.江西农业大学, 江西 南昌 330045
摘要:
[目的]对江西省生产建设项目弃土弃渣土壤侵蚀状况进行研究,为定量研究该区自然降雨条件下弃土弃渣土壤侵蚀规律和生产建设项目土壤侵蚀预测提供科学依据。[方法]采用基于K均值分类法,将研究区降雨划分为A(极大雨量、较长降雨历时、中雨强、低频次)、B(中雨量、中等降雨历时、小雨强、高频次)、C(大雨量、长降雨历时、大雨强、低频次)、D(中雨量、短降雨历时、极大雨强、高频次)4种类型,并依托江西省德安县国家水土保持生态科技园内的8种弃土弃渣径流试验小区,开展弃土弃渣土壤侵蚀定量研究。[结果]通过1 a内43场侵蚀降雨小区观测,结果表明:① A,D雨型是导致弃土弃渣产流输沙的主要类型,B雨型影响最小,C雨型则介于A,D雨型之间。②红砂岩红壤(HSY),第四纪红黏土(SJHT),紫色土(ZSYY),煤矸石(MGS),房渣土(FZT),其产流输沙间呈显著相关性;稀土尾矿(XYWK),花岗岩红壤(HGY),电厂灰渣(DCHZ),则不具有显著的水沙关系;③不同弃土弃渣次降雨产沙量以大雨量以上雨型占比最高,均60%以上,最高达97%以上。[结论]建议生产实践中预测或监测裸露弃土弃渣时,宜根据实际需求选取不同类型降雨开展,最主要预测或观测50 mm以上大雨量侵蚀量,以提高预测准确度,大幅减少监测成本,提高监测效率。
关键词:  生产建设项目  弃土弃渣  土壤侵蚀
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.02.021
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:江西水利科技项目“江西省小流域治理水土保持工程技术标准研究”(KT201517);江西水利科技项目“红壤弃土体坡面侵蚀特征研究”(KT201422);江西水利科技项目(KT201617)
Quantitative Study on Soil Erosion of Waste Residue from Production and Construction Project in Jiangxi Province
Fang Huanying1, Xie Songhua1, Huang Pengfei1, Liu Ying2
1.Jiangxi Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029, China;2.Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330045, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The main objective of this paper is to quantitatively study soil erosion status of waste residue (such as spoil and slag) from production and construction project under natural rainfall conditions, and provide reference for soil erosion prediction in Jiangxi Province.[Methods] Based on K-means method, the local rainfall was classified into four types:A(maximum rainfall, long rainfall duration, moderate rain intensity, low frequency), B(medium rainfall, medium rainfall duration, light rain intensity, high frequency), C(large rainfall, long rainfall duration, heavy rain intensity, low frequency), and D(medium rainfall, short rainfall duration, extremely heavy rain intensity, high frequency medium rainfall). In addition, the 8 kinds of spoil ground runoff test plots were chosen to carry out quantitative research on soil erosion of spoil in the National Soil and Water Conservation Ecological Science and Technology Park of De'an County, Jiangxi Province.[Results] Through the observation of 43 erosive rainfall in 1 year, the results show that:① The rainfall pattern of A and D are the main types, B has the least influence, and C falls in between A and D. ② There is significant correlation between runoff and sediment for red sandstone(HSY),stencil red clay(SJHT), purple soil (ZSYY), coal gangue(MGS), slag soil(FZT). ③ The rain pattern above large rainfall will lead to the highest sediment yield from the single abandoned waste residue.[Conclusion] When the bare abandoned soil and slag are predicted or monitored in production practice, different types of rainfall should be selected to carry out according to the actual demand, and the largest amount of large-scale rainfall over 50 mm is predicted or observed so as to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce the monitoring cost and improve the monitoring efficiency.
Key words:  production and construction projects  spoil ground slag  soil erosion