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鄱阳湖区典型堤防不同植草护坡产流产沙特征试验研究
肖胜生1,2, 胡志坚3, 张继松4, 汤崇军1,2, 杨洁1,2
1.江西省土壤侵蚀与防治重点实验室, 江西 南昌 330029;2.江西省水土保持科学研究院, 江西 南昌 330029;3.江西省峡江水利枢纽工程管理局, 江西 南昌 330046;4.江西省河道湖泊管理局, 江西 南昌 330009
摘要:
[目的]对鄱阳湖区典型堤防不同植草护坡产流产沙特征进行试验研究,为该区植草护坡草种筛选以及护坡技术构建提供一定的科学依据。[方法]采用人工模拟降雨的手段,利用水土流失移动监测车选取鄱阳湖区典型堤防——九江市永修县九合联圩为研究对象,对裸露坡面(BL)、自然恢复坡面(NRS)、狗牙根护坡坡面(CDS)、中华结缕草护坡坡面(ZSS)和假俭草护坡坡面(EOS)等5种护坡模式进行了水土流失监测,量化不同护坡模式的水土保持效益。[结果]裸地具有最短的初始产流时间和最大的径流流速,植草后能较大幅度延长初始产流时间,降低径流流速,并且假俭草坡面减缓坡面流速的效果最为明显。20 mm/h雨强下,4种植草坡面与裸露坡面之间的径流系数没有明显差异,但是随着雨强的增大,植草坡面对径流的抑制作用就越来越明显。各处理土壤流失量均随着雨强增大而增大。[结论]植草护坡能有效减少堤防土壤流失量,并且堤防植草护坡的减沙效益在大雨强下表现得更为明显。
关键词:  径流  泥沙  鄱阳湖区堤防  植草护坡  模拟降雨
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.02.002
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:江西省水利科技项目“江西省堤防植草护坡技术体系构建及效益评价”(KT201313),“峡江水利枢纽工程临江土质边坡生态防护技术研究示范”(KT201523),“优良水土保持植物假俭草关键繁殖技术研究”(KT201621),“优良堤防护坡草种假俭草撒播技术推广应用”(TG201702)
Experimental Study on Surface Runoff and Sediment Yield Characteristics Under Different Slope Protection Modes of a Typical Dike in Poyang Lake District
XIAO Shengsheng1,2, HU Zhijian3, ZHANG Jisong4, TANG Chongjun1,2, YANG Jie1,2
1.Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Prevention of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029, China;2.Jiangxi Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029, China;3.Jiangxi Xiajiang Hydroproject Authority, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330046, China;4.Jiangxi River and Lake Management Bureau, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330009, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Runoff and sediment yield characteristics of different grass-planting slope protection in typical dikes of Poyang Lake were studied in order to provide a scientific basis for the selection of grass species and the guiding of dike slope protection.[Methods] Responses of soil and water loss characteristics to different rainfall intensities were studied using rainfall simulation under 5 dike slope types, which are bare land(BL), natural restoration slope(NRS), Cynodon dactylon sowing in drill slope(CDS), Zoysia sinca sowing in drill slope(ZSS), Eremochloa ophiuroides and-stem planting slope(EOS), in Jiuhe Dike of Yongxiu County, a typical dike of Poyang Lake.[Results] As compared with BL, other four slope protection models played positive effect in prolonging initial runoff times and reducing flow velocities, and there was the lowest flow velocity under EOS treatment. There were no significant difference of runoff coefficient between BL and other four slopes under 20 mm/h rainfall intensity, but with the increase of the rainfall intensity, the inhibition of vegetation protection to surface runoff were becoming more and more obvious. Sediment yields increased with the increase of rainfall intensity under 5 treatments.[Conclusion] Compared with BL, vegetation protection slopes could effectively reduce dike sediment loss, especially under high rainfall intensity.
Key words:  runoff  sediment  dike in Poyang Lake district  slope protection with grass planting  simulated rainfall